Travaux universitaires - Janvier 2018

Publié le :

Organic Tea : Global Market and Forecast Sales

Journal of Tea Science Research, 2017, vol. 7, n°11, 11 pages - Site de biopublisher.ca

Abstract : « The increasing demand from the consumers of Germany, United Kingdom, Japan and USA for organic teas, few conventional tea gardens of India, Sri Lanka and China have converted to organic processes during 1980s and subsequently it has been spread to different tea producing countries. Still the organic tea sector is a very small part of the tea industry, accounting of less than 1.3% by volume but the number of organic tea producers and the volume of organic tea traded in the world market have recorded high growth over the last couple of years. The annual growth rate has since cooled to 6%. It has a niche market where the produce sells at a premium price. The global organic tea market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and rest of the world. Asia-Pacific region has the major market share followed by Europe. The domestic market for organic tea does not yet exist in India and Sri Lanka. But there is strong domestic market for organic green tea in China. China is exporting organic tea to Japan, the Europe and the United States. India leads the world in organic black tea output. Based on the higher demand for healthy beverages, the import and export of organic tea in the developed countries is found to rise at a steady growth rate. Around 75-80% of organic teas were exported to the United States and Germany followed by France, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Japan and Holland. In the US, organic tea is the fastest growing section of the tea industry and North America was at the peak of a growth burst in 2015, reinforcing its importance as the largest global market in terms of region, with Western Europe and Asia Pacific lagged slightly behind. Different global market research firm have predicted that the organic tea will continue to dominate and expected to increase by a CAGR of 5-13% next five years in U.S. In the present paper, the development of organic tea, global market and trade are discussed. »

Mots clés : INDE, CHINE, EUROPE, ETATS UNIS, JAPON, THE BIOLOGIQUE, EXPORTATION, CONSOMMATION


Convenio (UNAD) ECAPMA–ASOSEYNEKUN, Apoyar la administración del sistema de control interno de la organización ASOSEYNEKUN para mantener las certificaciones de producción y comercialización orgánica de café

BENIS LAUDELINO, Mejia – Mémoire universitaire, Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia (UNAD), Escuela de Ciencias Agrícolas - 2017, 70 pages - Site de repository.unad.edu.co

Resumen : « El convenio (UNAD) Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia con la organización de familias productoras indígenas (ASOSEYNEKUN) se convierte en un espacio que permite la interacción institucional en función de la investigación, experiencia y aprendizaje practico para asociados de la organización y personal adscrito a la universidad, en esta ocasión la práctica busca el fortalecimiento de la organización de familias productoras indígenas a través de la revisión paso a paso de temas propios de la obtención de una certificación ecológica que permita comercializar los productos como tal, a la vez que buscacompartir entre los productores asociados prácticas sostenibles de producción, interviniendo directamente el sistema de control interno, parte vital en la asociación porque enlaza el proceso de certificación con la organización internamente a través de la creación e implementación de prácticas que se convertirán en políticas organizacionales y activo patrimonial, al tiempo se evaluaron los sistemas de producción utilizados por método de observación pues se buscó identificar características que puedan llevar a mejoras de aprovechamiento de los sistemas agroforestales en cuestión, llevando al estudiante a mejorar sus recursos prácticos del área agropecuaria y ambiental a través de la interacción con el equipo profesional dispuesto por la organización y la asesoría constante de expertos de la universidad. »

Mots clés : COLOMBIE, CAFE BIOLOGIQUE, COOPERATIVE, FORMATION, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, CERTIFICATION, FLO, AMERINDIEN


The Effects of Fair Trade Certification : Evidence From Coffee : Producers in Costa Rica

DRAGUSANU, Raluca ; NUNN, Nathan – Mémoire universitaire, Harvard University, 2017, 46 pages - Site de scholar.harvard.edu

Abstract : « We examine the effects of the Fair Trade (FT) certification of coffee on producers and households in Costa Rica. Examining the production dynamics of the universe of Costa Rican coffee mills from 1999–2014, we find that FT certification is associated with a higher sales price, greater sales, and more revenues. As expected, these effects are greater when global coffee prices are lower and the FT guaranteed minimum price is binding. Looking at households, we find evidence that FT is associated with higher incomes for all families, but especially for those working in the coffee sector. However, we also find that, within this sector, the benefits are not evenly distributed. Farm owners and skilled workers benefit from FT, intermediaries are hurt, and hired unskilled workers are unaffected. Thus, although FT creates sizable benefits (on average), it also results in a redistribution from intermediaries to farmers. Lastly, we also find evidence of positive effects of FT certification on the education of high-school-aged children, which is most likely due to the presence of scholarship programs that are funding by FT premiums. »

Mots clés : COSTA RICA, CAFE EQUITABLE, IMPACT, PRODUCTEUR


Consumers’ Willingness to Pay More for Organic Food in Croatia

Review of Contemporary Business, Entrepreneurship and Economic Issues, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Economics and Business, 2017, vol. 30, n°2, 15 pages - Site de hrcak.srce.hr

Abstract : « Taking into consideration growing concerns about conventional agricultural practices, food safety, human health, animal welfare and the environment, the main goal of this paper is to identify the predictors of consumers’ willingness to buy organic food and to pay a premium price for it. The research was conducted on a representative sample of respondents in the Republic of Croatia, a growing organic food market, using a highly structured questionnaire. Research results indicate that respondents in Croatia perceive organic food as more expensive, healthier and tastier than conventional food ; also, they believe that the origin of organic food is strictly controlled. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicate that higher monthly household income predicts a greater willingness to pay (WTP) a higher price for organic food compared to conventional food. Also, perception of organic food as healthier and tastier than conventional food predicts a greater WTP a higher price for organic food compared to conventional products. It is expected that research results will be useful for food retailers in their market communication strategies towards further development and overall growth of the organic food market in Croatia. This research is one of its kind as it captures WTP a premium price for organic food and identifies the main factors influencing WTP a premium price for organic food on the growing Croatian market. »

Mots clés : CROATIE, AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE, PRIX, CONSENTEMENT A PAYER, CONSOMMATEUR


Influencia de la certificación Fair Trade en la producción bananera de la provincia de El Oro – Ecuador

Revista Dilemas Contemporáneos : Educación, Política y Valores, octobre 2017, n°2, 21 pages - Site de files.dilemascontemporaneoseducacionpoliticayvalores.com

« El presente artículo detalla los resultados de una investigación de carácter académico, que tiene como objetivo principal, determinar las ventajas que implica contar con una certificación internacional Fair Trade y las desventajas que implica el no tenerla, mediante el análisis comparativo entre dos empresas bananeras de la provincia de El Oro, República del Ecuador. Se utilizó una metodología de tipo cualitativa empleando técnicas investigativas como la entrevista, obteniendo como resultado que el contar con la certificación Fair Trade permite a los trabajadores obtener los mejores precios del mercado, además de recibir una prima destinada a proyectos socioeconómicos y ambientales, mientras que las empresas que no cuentan con un certificación, no poseen beneficios ni proyectos que impulsen su crecimiento. »

Mots clés : EQUATEUR, BANANE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, IMPACT


Exportación de Mermelada de Guayaba al Mercado de Paris, Francia

SILVA MEGO, Dayana – Mémoire universitaire, Universidad de San Martin de Porresn Lima, Escuela Profesional de Administración de Negocios Internacionales, 2016, 85 p. - Site de repositorioacademico.usmp.edu.pe

« Con este proyecto se desea conocer si el producto mermelada de guayaba tendrá aceptación en la población francesa, debido a que cuenta con un valor agregado de Comercio Justo que lo diferencia de la competencia. Esta mermelada va dirigida a un mercado segmentado de Paris, personas entre 25 y 53 años que poseen un valor adquisitivo promedio y que suelen cuidar su salud. El producto será vendido como marca blanca a través del supermercado Carrefour, a fin de que las personas que suelen ir a hacer sus compras en ese supermercado satisfagan sus necesidades y a la vez vean a nuestro producto como algo accesible a su bolsillo y saludable. Según el análisis de demanda deberíamos exportar a Paris 21600 unidades al año y para proyectar las demandas de los siguientes años se tomará en cuenta un horizonte de 5 periodos. El proyecto se basa en la creación de una empresa comercializadora de mermelada de guayaba que a través del comercio justo se aliará con una asociación de productores de Cajamarca, haciéndolos participar en la cadena de valor y forjando un objetivo en común. »

Mots clés : PEROU, FRANCE, PARIS, CONFITURE DE GOYAVE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, PRODUCTEUR


Toward Sustainable Horticulture in Tanzania : Policy Coherence and Options for Pesticides Use Control

International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch, 2017, vol. 6, n°2, 10 p. - Site de ijaeb.org

Abstract : « The adverse effects of pesticide use need to be addressed and minimized for development of an efficient, competitive and sustainable horticultural sector in Tanzania. This review presents a perspective of the regulations and policies guiding pesticide use in horticultural sector. There has been a wide range of food safety standard initiatives lead by both government and private sector targeting on reduction of pesticides use in horticultural production. These initiatives are basically formulated in major three elements of standards such as creating awareness, standards enforcement ; institutional and regulatory framework. The intervention strategies for compliance with standards includes : expansion for adoption of good agricultural practices ; promotion of horticulture in the government authorities ; and promotion of investment in organic horticulture. In spite of generally developed legal framework, policies and legislation with respect to pest and pesticide management in Tanzania, their effectiveness on the pesticide use reduction appears to be seriously insufficient. »

Mots clés : TANZANIE, HORTICULTURE, PESTICIDE, NORME, AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE, LEGISLATION, IMPACT


Polish Consumer on the Market of Fair Trade Products

Journal of Management and Financial Sciences, mars 2017, n°27, vol. 10, 16 p. - Site de kolegia.sgh.waw.pl

Abstract : « Fair Trade is an organised social movement, a trading partnership based on dialogue, transparency and respect, whose strategy is to cooperate with marginalised producers and workers. The paper discusses selected results of empirical studies conducted in 2013 within the framework of research project Polish Market of Fair Trade Products financed from the NCN funds, concerning the Fair Trade idea and Polish consumer behaviour in the market of Fair Trade produets. They demonstrated that Fair Trade idea is not a subject of interest to wider circles of Polish consumers. Polish consumers most willingly buy stimulants, tea, coffee, and food produets. Many of them decide to buy such produets influenced by ethical and environmental factors. »

Mots clés : POLOGNE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, CONSOMMATEUR


The Impact of Fairtrade on Poverty Reduction Through Rural Development : A Case Study of Small – Scale Fairtrade Vegetable Growers in Meru Central Sub-County

KIMATHL, Dickson – Mémoire universitaire, University of Nairobi, Department of Sociology and Social Work, décembre 2017, 93 pages - Site de erepository.uonbi.ac.ke

Abstract : « Fairtrade is a non-profit certifying and labelling initiative with the goal of developing a market situation that is sustainable for farmers and the environment. The scheme was rolled out in Kenya for various crops ; coffee, tea and flowers with vegetables being the latest entry in the year 2011. The intent of the program is to improve terms of trade, produce goods in a sustainable way as well as improve the lives and working conditions of farm workers and farmers in general. In the recent past there have been various studies looking at the success of the scheme as well as challenges and how better to improve the whole scheme. Finlay’s horticulture Kenya limited Outgrowers scheme in Meru-Central sub-county ventured into the Fairtrade program in the year 2011 and were the first group of the small-scale farmers to be certified under the Fairtrade banner in Kenya, the growers have since been selling their produce through the Fairtrade scheme with markets in UK, Germany and Netherlands. The study therefore was set to examine levels of change in farming practices, to investigate the impact in levels of production and to examine the social and economic impacts experienced because of the Fairtrade scheme. The researcher not only interviewed the farmers in the scheme but also farmers not involved in the scheme. There are two Small producer organisations in Meru central Sub county (Meruand 2 SPOs) were used in the study with a total number of farmers of 300.The researcher used both probability and non-probability sampling procedures to select the farmers and key informants respectively. The research findings show that the scheme has benefited the farmers in various ways ; Farmers enjoy better returns for their produce, there is a guaranteed market for the produce as signed in the farming contracts issued, the farmer organisations are better run and due to this farmers are able to access credit facilities with ease, due to the strict Fairtrade standards requirement the farmer and worker health and safety concerns at farm level is better mitigated therefore lowering the exposure to safety hazards, farmers are trained on better agriculture practices and therefore produce quality at the farms improve and lastly farmer is trained on sustainable agriculture with an overall aim to conserve the environment. During the study it was noted that there also some challenges like limited and restricted amount of pesticides to use on Fairtrade crops, the scope for the crops traded for Fairtrade currently stand at three, the farmers felt that was limiting as they can grow many crops to trade under the Fairtrade logo. Due to the market dimensions’ farmers do not grow the Fairtrade crops throughout the year as during the European summer they have a reduced planting program with affects the overall annual farm profits. The study recommends that more farmers participate in the Fairtrade program as the benefits far outweigh the negatives. Most of the respondents’ felt that much had been reaped in terms of social, economic and environmental benefits to them and their community and really wanted the scheme to be expanded to ensure they were selling more crop varieties. »

Mots clés : KENYA, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, EXPORTATION, CAFE, THE, FLEUR, LEGUME, PRODUCTEUR, IMPACT, PAUVRETE


Localisme et capitalisme : Des difficultés de l’engagement pour « une autre économie »

FRERE, Bruno – Travail universitaire, Université de Cambridge, Département de sociologie, Service de sociologie des identités contemporaines, 2017, 25 pages - Site de orbi.ulg.ac.be

« L’économie solidaire couvre diverses initiatives allant des nouvelles coopératives de consommation (Associations pour le Maintien de l’Agriculture Paysanne, etc), aux services de proximité en passant par le commerce équitable, les associations d’échanges non monétaires, les coopératives de (micro)crédit qui financent des entreprises « alternatives » et les structures qui en accompagnent la mise sur pied. Dans un premier temps, notre contribution a essentiellement consisté à pointer ce qu’il y avait de commun entre ces initiatives aux allures très à l’aide des outils de la sociologie pragmatique. Il s’est agi d’attester la pertinence historique, sociologique et philosophique de la notion d’économie solidaire en prouvant qu’elle a en propre, depuis le 19e Siècle, une grammaire morale que ses acteurs cherchent à respecter à la fois dans leurs pratiques et dans leurs prises de parole dans les arènes publiques. Il a été établi que cette grammaire morale reposait sur quatre valeurs : le care (et/ou le convivialisme), le militantisme, la créativité et l’autogestion. Depuis une même posture cet article voudrait aujourd’hui jeter un coup de projecteur sur les fragilités de cette grammaire morale. On constate actuellement que ces valeurs mobilisées par les acteurs des circuits courts, des services de proximité, des coopératives de crédits ou des échanges non monétaires sont aussi mobilisées par ces derniers pour alimenter des disputes et des critiques à l’encontre de leurs pairs. »

Mots clés : FRANCE, ESS, ETHIQUE, LOCALISME, CAPITALISME


Propuesta de Plan de Negocio para Comercializar en la Ciudad de Guayaquil el Nibs de Cacao Elaborado por la Asociación de Productores Orgánicos de Vinces Apovinces de la Provincia de Los Ríos

GOMEZ CEVALLOS, Jonathan – Mémoire universitaire, Universidad de Guayaquil (Equateur), Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas, Carrera de Ingeniería Comercial, 2017, 139 pages - Site de repositorio.ug.edu.ec

Resumen : “El presente proyecto de investigación, está basado en la comercialización de Nibs de cacao en el sector norte de la ciudad de Guayaquil, mediante la Asociación de Productores Orgánicos de Vinces
APOVINCES, para efectos de la realización de este proyecto, se recolectó información de importancia que dieron a lugar a determinar la factibilidad de la puesta en marcha del mismo. APOVINCES, durante varios años se ha destacado en la producción de cacao, lo que la ha convertido en la asociación líder de producción de cacao en Vinces, el propósito de este plan de negocios es impulsar la producción de Nibs de cacao, en la ciudad de Guayaquil precisamente en los gimnasios del sector norte de la misma, contando con la Asociación como productora de estos Nibs de cacao. El tipo de investigación del presente proyecto fue no probabilístico ya que los datos que se recolectaron durante el desarrollo del mismo, no fueron manipulados, toda información es real obtenida de datos estadísticos de fuentes externas a la investigación como de fuentes propias mediante la recolección de datos de la encuesta realizada a las personas que asisten a los gimnasios del sector norte de la ciudad de Guayaquil. XII Vale destacar que este proyecto tuvo un enfoque cuantitativo en su investigación de mercado ya que se usaron datos numéricos con el fin de identificar las preferencias y los factores que podrían incidir en el comportamiento de compra de los potenciales clientes que la Asociación de productores Orgánicos de Vinces, APOVINCES, podría tener durante su participación en el mercado Guayaquileno. »

Mots clés : EQUATEUR, GUAYAQUIL, CACAO, AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, TRANSFORMATION, PRODUCTEUR


Comercio justo y economía social y solidaria : historia y evolución de sus instituciones de fomento

ALVAREZ, Cesar - Equidad y Desarollo (Universidad de La Salle, Colombie), janvier 2018, n°30, 149-172 p. - Site de revistas.lasalle.edu.co

Resumen : « Este artículo analiza la evolución histórica del fomento y la promoción del comercio justo. Se utiliza una metodología descriptiva de los actores presentes en la cadena de valor, tanto nacionales como internacionales. El objetivo es definir e identificar el rol de la economía social y solidaria y el comercio justo en el desarrollo de la economía campesina familiar en Colombia, que se encuentra presente en el Acuerdo final para la terminación del conflicto y la construcción de una paz duradera. Se proponen las sinergias entre actores para diseñar nuevas alianzas públicoprivadas, considerando los resultados del análisis histórico de la evolución de las certificaciones de comercio justo y las tendencias internacionales en las políticas públicas desde 1964. »

Mots clés : COLOMBIE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, ESS, HISTOIRE


Gestão Socioambiental na Atividade Cafeeira : Uma Análise das Maiores Exportadoras e Certificadoras de Café do Brasil e da Colômbia

NASCIMENTO, Mayara ; ALIGLERI, Lilian – Etude universitaire, décembre 2017, 14 pages - Site de « http://engemausp.submissao.com.br»

Abstract : This study aimed to characterize the international socio-environmental certifications adopted by the biggest coffee export companies from Brazil and Colombia. This is a qualitative descriptive study carried out with the six major coffee export companies from Latin America : Terra Forte Cafés, Cooxupé, Unicafe, Carcafé, Racafé and Expocafé ; and three certification systems : Fairtrade, UTZ Certified and Rainforest Alliance. This research was based on documental analysis of regulatory reports of certifications which provide information about the environmental requirements of each certification system. It can be concluded that socioenvironmental certifications are now a reality in the global coffee agribusiness scenario. Rainforest Alliance is the predominant certification in export companies analyzed in this study and presents the highest number of social and environmental requirements. UTZ Certified is present in five of the six coffee export companies and Fairtrade only in Colombian companies.

Mots clés : BRESIL, COLOMBIE, CAFE EQUITABLE, UTZ, FLO, RAINFOREST ALLIANCE, ENVIRONNEMENT, SYSTEME DE CERTIFICATION


Fairness in Markets and Market Experiments

Rationality & Competition, Paper Discussion n°64, janvier 2018, 42 p. - Humb oldt-Universität zu Berlin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München - Site de rationality-and-competition.de

Abstract : « Whether pro-social preferences identified in economic laboratories survive in natural market contexts is an important and contested issue. We investigate how fairness in a laboratory experiment framed explicitly as a market exchange relates to preferences for fair trade products before and after the market experiment. We find that the willingness to buy at a higher price when higher wages are paid to the worker correlates both with the choice for a fairtrade product before the laboratory experiment and with whether the participants are willing to pay a positive fair trade premium, elicited at the end of the experiment. These results support the notion that fairness preferences as assessed in laboratory experiments capture preferences for fair behavior in comparable situations outside the laboratory. »

Mots clés : ALLEMAGNE, PRODUIT EQUITABLE, CONSENTEMENT A PAYER, ETHIQUE, MILIEU SOCIAL


Sustainable coffee supply chain management : a case study in Buon Me Thuot City, Daklak, Vietnam

International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility, janvier 2018, vol.3, n°1, 17 pages - Site de link.springer.com

Abstract : « This paper aims to analyze and discuss the evolution towards sustainable coffee supply chain and its management in Vietnam. Coffee is a major agricultural export commodity of Vietnam with the export value accounts for 3% of national GDP in 2014 and provides a livelihood for approximately 2.6 million people. However, the sector is facing enormous challenges as the current farming methods and processing infrastructure have been unsustainable resulting in many catastrophic impacts on the environment such as deforestation and soil degradation that have the potential to lead to a decrease in the quality of coffee beans. Using a case study in Buon Me Thuot City, Daklak, Vietnam, the paper analyses the key factors influencing the sustainable coffee supply chain management in Vietnam. Our analysis confirms that although productivity is high, and farmers have positive experiences in this sector, sustainability issues are emerging. For instance, the farmers have experienced soil erosion and a lack of water and as such are now more willing to incorporate sustainability initiatives in their production and processing. »

Mots clés : VIETNAM, CAFE DURABLE, ENVIRONNEMENT, PRODUCTEUR