Travaux universitaires - Octobre 2017

Publié le :

La industria de los cafés de especialidad. Relación entre certificaciones de calidad o especialidad, y los ingresos de los caficultores en Colombia. 1989-2015

MARULANDA, Alejandro - Universidad del Rosario (Bogota) , Facultad de Economía,, 2017, 10 pages - Site de repository.urosario.edu.co

Resumen : « Los cafés certificados con calidad o especialidad pretenden construir una nueva forma del comercio del grano. Las implicaciones de sus certificaciones en el ingreso y el desarrollo del caficultor no son aún claras y eso se debe a la falta transmisión de la información sobre las propias certificaciones. Se debe entonces enfocar los esfuerzos de la industria, en construir la sostenibilidad y sustentabilidad mediante la implementación de certificaciones de calidad y especialidad que le permitan un acceso suficiente tanto al productor primario, como a todos los eslabones de la cadena productiva y de comercio, y a los consumidores. Generando una relación más estrecha entre el productor inicial y el consumidor. El siguiente trabajo muestra evidencia de cómo se encuentra el mercado de la calidad y la especialidad en el café en Colombia y otros países productores, y en que casos las certificaciones tienen o no una correlación positiva con los ingresos de los caficultores y su desarrollo. »

Mots clés : COLOMBIE, CAFE EQUITABLE, CAE BIOLOGIQUE, CERTIFICATION, QUALITE, DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE


Navigating the Land Between Religions : New Perspectives on the Fair Trade and Food Sovereignty Movement Strategies to Challenge International Trade Governance

BURNETT, Kimberly – University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada), Doctor of Philosophy in Global Governance, 2017, 209 pages - Site de uwspace.uwaterloo.ca

Abstract : « The fair trade and food sovereignty movements adopt very different strategies for challenging the existing international agricultural trade regime. Food sovereignty contests and resists the existing system, employing contentious politics and an “outside strategy” motivated by the view that the regime cannot be reformed. Meanwhile, fair trade largely focuses on existing opportunities within the system, taking up a collaborative, “inside strategy” in an effort to progress towards an equitable and just trade system. These movements have notable differences in their views on how to change how trade is governed. This research seeks to explain and understand why these two different movements take up different strategies in pursuit of a common goal. To understand and explain these two strategies, I analyze their strategies and activities, and the factors that explain these, through an interdisciplinary analytical framework that bridges the theory and practice of governance and change. My findings and analysis demonstrate that when we analyze these movements through such a lens, we see more clearly the complexities of governing international trade and challenging neoliberal hegemony, and how the seemingly divergent strategies of these movements are complementary to achieving economic justice. »

Mots clés : MOUVEMENT DE COMMERCE EQUITABLE, MOUVEMENT DE SOUVERAINETE ALIMENTAIRE, STRATEGIE, GOUVERNANCE MONDIALE


Impacts of Fairtrade on Small-Scale Cotton Producers : A field study in rural India

HOLM, Felicia ; LINDGREN – Université de Gothenburg, School of Business, Economics and Law Department of Economics, 2017, 54 pages - Site de gupea.ub.gu.se »

Abstract : « The number of Fairtrade labeled products in the stores continues to increase and more and more consumers choose Fairtrade as an alternative to conventional products. Fairtrade seeks to improve the livelihoods of small-scale producers and reduce poverty by implementing several standards for economic, social and environmental development. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the economic impacts of Fairtrade as well as the effects of Fairtrade on farmers’ standard of living. 101 farmers from the producer organization Chetna Organic in India were interviewed using a questionnaire. The impacts of Fairtrade are estimated through regression analysis, where positive statistically significant effects of Fairtrade on land productivity, credit use and perceived influence in cooperative are shown, while Fairtrade negatively affects food shortage. The farmers claimed to be satisfied with Fairtrade in spite of their limited knowledge of it, which makes it difficult to determine if Fairtrade is the actual cause of their satisfaction. »

Mots clés : INDE, COTON EQUITABE, PRODUCTEUR, IMPACT, ENQUETE


What is cocoa sustainability ? Mapping stakeholders’ socio-economic, environmental, and commercial constellations of priorities

KRAUSS, Judith - Enterprise Development & Microfinance, 2017, 23 pages - Site de developmentbookshelf.com

« Given growing concerns regarding the chocolate sector’s long-term future, more private-sector, public-sector, and civil-society stakeholders have become involved in initiatives seeking to make cocoa more ‘sustainable’. However, the commercial, socio-economic, and environmental priorities they associate with the omnipresent, yet polysemic term diverge considerably : while transforming the crop into a more viable livelihood for growers is essential for some, others prioritize the crop’s links to global environmental challenges through agroforestry. A third dimension encompasses commercial concerns related to securing supply. The article explores how tensions and synergies manifest in these divergent understandings of what cocoa sustainability is and is to entail, which diverse civil-society, public-sector, and private-sector stakeholders bring to the table. It argues that priorities associated with ‘cocoa sustainability’ diverge, yielding synergies, tensions, and trade-offs. This article draws on the author’s in-depth doctoral fieldwork in cocoa sustainability initiatives incorporating environmental measures, which encompassed semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions, documentary analysis, and participant observation in Latin America and Europe. It proposes the ‘constellations of priorities’ model as an instrument to capture how the priorities driving cocoa stakeholders variously dovetail, intersect, and collide. Particularly against the backdrop of the sector’s brewing crisis, the paper suggests that stakeholders systematically assess their and other actors’ socio-economic, environmental, and commercial priorities as part of the equitable engagement required to transform the sector and attain genuine cocoa sustainability. »

Mots clés : AMERIQUE LATINE, EUROPE, CACAO DURABLE, FILIERE DE PRODUIT


In search of the citizenconsumer : fair trade activism in the Netherlands since the 1960s

VAN DAM, Peter – BMGM, Low Countries Historical Review, n°132, vol.3, 2017, pp.139–166 - Site de bmgn-lchr.nl

Abstract : « Postwar prosperity enabled citizens to express their views in new ways. The success of the movement for fair trade since the 1960s underlines the significance of the figure of the citizen-consumer in postwar history. The pioneering initiatives for fair trade in the Netherlands invoked the power of citizens as consumers. They should consume responsibly, but their wishes likewise had to be respected. The citizen-consumer was positioned in relation to producers, consumers, civic organizations, companies, local and national governments, and international institutions. An analysis of the shifts in this entangled construction points out the possibilities and the limitations of an approach directed at the citizen-consumer. Examining three crucial episodes in the history of fair trade, this article embeds the citizen-consumer within competing spatial frameworks, relates consumption to other social practices, and demonstrates the significance of intermediaries interpreting individual acts of consumption. « 

Mots clés : PAYS BAS, CONSOMMATION ETHIQUE, HISTOIRE


Propuesta de Metodología para la Identificación y el Análisis de Modelos de Negocio Triplemente Sostenibles en el sector Agroalimentario

GALEANO REVERT, Ana – Universitat Politecnica de Valancia, Thèse doctorale, juin 2107, 195 pages - Site de riunet.upv.es

« El sector agroalimentario supone un importante motor económico y social en muchos países, no solo por su relevancia económica, sino también por su significado vital. Desde hace años se puede considerar que la evolución del sector ha derivado en el desarrollo de redes de distribución centralizadas y globales. Estas redes de distribución globales, en un mercado de productos de bajo ratio valor/peso, son más eficientes cuanto más centralizada esté su logística. Este nuevo paradigma tiene como efecto colateral la difícil pervivencia del pequeño productor-vendedor con los problemas que esto supone para el ciudadano en cuanto a miembro de la sociedad. Esta tesis se enmarca en un proyecto de profesores de la Universitat Politècnica de València denominado HOF3M (Heterarchical Open Food 3-sustainable Market). El proyecto tiene el objetivo de facilitar el desarrollo de un mercado triplemente sostenible de productos alimentarios, generando las bases tecnológicas y de negocio que reduzcan las barreras de entrada para que, cualquiera, en cualquier lugar del planeta pueda convertirse en un agente que acerque cualquier productor a cualquier consumidor. El objetivo de esta tesis se concreta en “proporcionar una metodología para la identificación y el análisis de modelos de negocio, a través del estudio de casos prácticos en empresas, con el objeto de confeccionar un banco de modelos de negocio triplemente sostenibles, replicables y no escalables en el sector agroalimentario”. La aplicación de esta metodología proporciona una herramienta que facilita la replicabilidad de modelos de negocio en el tejido empresarial agroalimentario. Además, permite identificar aquellos modelos triplemente sostenibles y no escalables, que pueden ser implementados por consumidores, productores e intermediarios. El trabajo de investigación se realiza desde las revisiones de literatura para el entendimiento del ámbito de los modelos de negocio, de la triple sostenibilidad empresarial y del contexto de la economía agroalimentaria, además de la aplicación de la metodología de investigación a tres casos de estudio, con los cuales se valida la propuesta. De esta tesis se extraen tres aportaciones fundamentales : una metodología para identificar y analizar un modelo de negocio a través de casos de estudio, un modelo de evaluación de la triple sostenibilidad en el marco de la economía agroalimentaria, y tres análisis de modelos de negocio de venta al por menor de alimentos. »

Mots clés : ESPAGNE, INDUSTRIE AGROLAIMENTAIRE, DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE, FILIERE DE PRODUIT


O Comércio Justo como Instrumento de Justiça Global : Um Estudo de Contraposição Ao Comércio Mundial

LEANDRO LOPES, Rodrigues - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Florianopolis, Brésil), Centro de Ciências Jurídicas, Programa de Pós Graduação em Direito, 2017, 176 pages - Site de repositorio.ufsc.br

Resumo : « O presente estudo é voltado à discussão da categoria “comércio justo”, que constitui uma nova modalidade de fazer comércio baseada no princípio da sustentabilidade – em suas faces econômica, social e ambiental – como fundamento do negócio jurídico. É regida por princípios éticos e solidários, voltados à justiça social, desde o âmbito local até a dimensão internacional. Essa concepção distingue-se do comércio tradicional uma vez que este é regido por princípios, muitas vezes, não legitimados pela sociedade internacional. Aquela vertente, a seu turno, trata - se de uma manifestação da Justiça Global que, delineada no contexto da globalização, visa fortalecer a sociedade civil e os movimentos sociais, intensificando o fenômeno do transnacionalismo e do pluralismo jurídico. Isso ocorre porque, desde a formação dos Estados, as relações comerciais expandiramse para âmbito internacional consolidando o sistema capitalista –em um primeiro momento sob a lógica mercantilista – o qual, inserido no processo de globalização, acarretou em mazelas sociais para toda sociedade. Sendo assim, o objetivo geral é verificar se o comércio justo pode ser instrumento da Justiça Global, sob lógica distinta do comércio mundial tradicional (free trade) . Quanto aos objetivos específicos, intenta con textualizar a formação sistêmica do comércio mundial, caracterizar a Justiça Global e indicar as contribuições do comércio justo para a sua afirmação . A abordagem metodológica utilizada foi o método hipotético-dedutivo. A hipótese central é a de que o comércio justo pode ser instrumento da Justiça Global, contrapondose ao comércio mundial, dito tradicional, regido pelo multilateral ismo e por irrestrita liberdade, sob os auspícios do capitalismo. »

Mots clés : COMMERCE EQUITABLE, COMMERCE MONDIAL, JUSTICE GLOBALE


A Economia Criativa no Âmbito do Comércio Justo e Solidário : Uma Análise a Luz do Princípio da Eficiência Econômico-Social para a Promoção da Inclusão Social

PAULA CARVALHO, Nathalie - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Florianopolis, Brésil), Centro de Ciências Jurídicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito, Doutorado em Direito, 2017, 311 pages - Site repositorio.ufsc.br/bitstream

Resumo : « Por meio de um aparato teórico-científico, será apresentada a temática da Economia Criativa como uma proposta de desenvolvimento econômico sustentável e inclusão social, perpassando por suas repercussões nos direitos de propriedade intelectual. Os seus contornos ainda são obscuros, principalmente por se tratar de um tema relativamente novo na ordem econômica. O SEBRAE vem orientando os empreendedores e industriais criativos para oficializar seus negóciose, consequentemente, usufruirdos seus benefícios. Além da mera subsis tência, a Economia Criativa reverbera seus reflexos para uma quantidade maior de searas, como por exemplo, promover o desenvolvimento econômico sustentável e a inclusão social. São atitudes precipuamente econômicas que utilizam como principal insumo a cria tividade humana, o talento, haja vista que a maioria das atividades tocadas por ela são artísticas (artesanato, música, design, artes plásticas, eventos folclóricos, danças, etc). A proposta desta pesquisa é dar uma ênfase mais significativa para os direit os culturais e a diversidade cultural como uma riqueza intangível que pode ser reconhecida como uma importante fonte de renda e de integração econômico-social. Assim, pretende - se apresentar a Economia Criativa, perpassando pelo arcabouço normativo das leis vestigando se o processo de defasagem, decorrente da mudança promovida pela Economia Criativa e da dinamicidade da sociedade. Adicionalmente, as indústrias criativas podem reforçar a cultura como valores e tradições que identificam uma comunidade ou nação. Além do papel de coesão social e inclusão, este reforço tem o potencial de gerar atratividade turística. Esta é a maneira pela qual a economia criativa se relaciona com a cultura e com o turismo. Outra maneira se relaciona ao turismo cultural centrado no patrimônio. A abordagem da economia criativa pode contribuir para a exploração racional e sustentável desse tipo de turismo e para a preservação do patrimônio, do meio ambiente e para o benefício das populações locais. »

Mots clés : BRESIL, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, ECONOMIE SOCIALE ET SOLIDAIRE


Impacts of Group Organic Certification of Coffee on Socio-Economic and Environmental Sustainability in Nepal

KATTEL, R. - Journal of Agriculture and Forestry University, 2017, vol.1, 12 p. - Site de afu.edu.np

Abstract : « Different certification schemes have been emerged as a source of significant and innovative revenue for standard setting and livelihood promotion in the environmental realm. This study examines the potential for group organic certification of coffee to contribute to socio-economic and environmental sustainability in the selected rural regions of Nepal. Data were collected by using semi-structured interviews as well as by conducting focus group discussion in Gulmi and Kavrepalanchok districts, Nepal. Three dimensional income sources realized from coffee farm in Nepal- mainly from coffee, shed trees, and inter crops. The findings revealed that group organic certification plays positive role on smallholders’ livelihoods. Certification is seen as a catalyst to enter international markets coupled with environmental and social benefits. The regression analysis indicated experience in coffee cultivation, altitude of farm and the certification dummy as the key determining factors on household income from coffee sector. Findings suggest that participation in group organic certification increases farmers’ welfare through increased income and environmentalfeatures. »

Mots clés : NEPAL, CAFE EQUITABLE, CERTIFICATION, PRODUCTEUR, IMPACT, AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE


Consumers’ attitudes Towards Sustainability and Sustainable Labels in the Fashion Industry : A Qualitative Study

FORSMAN, Lina ; MADSEN, Denise - The Swedish School of textiles, University of Boras, 2017, 76 pages - Site de diva-portal.se

Abstract : « In the last decades sustainability has become a major topic in society. The population is growing, which has increased production and has resulted in a negative impact on the environment. The fashion industry has become a big contributor to the negative impact on the environment through fast fashion. Although consumers continue buying low price garments on a weekly basis, more and more consumers are becoming more aware of sustainability. As a result, sustainable labels have entered the industry with a controversy confusing consumers with the different labels available in all industries. It has also created doubt in the reliability of the labels expressed by consumers. Using sustainable labeling is a way of spreading information and awareness about sustainability and to understand how consumers prefer to receive information, and how this affects their purchasing behavior. This has lead to the purpose of the study, which is to explore Generation Y’s attitudes towards sustainability and sustainable labels within the fashion industry. The research was a qualitative study with an exploratory approach. The research used two focus groups from generation Y to collect empirical data about consumers’ attitudes towards fashion sustainability. The sample was purposively chosen with generation Y being the most consumption-oriented generation of all time, and more socially and environmentally aware which was pre ferred in this study. Conclusions that could be drawn from the study were that the participants knew about sustainable labels and could name several labels, although only in general and not in regards to apparel. The participants were also critical towards sustainability within the fashion industry due to overproduction and environmentally unfriendly materials that the industry uses, making consumer question the fashion industry’s real intentions. There is an interest in sustainable clothing but it is perceived as too expensive and unavailable, where one must actively seek for sustainable products. A preferred way to receive sustainable information through labeling was to use a comprehensive regulatory requirement schemes, similar to the one the appliance industry uses. »

Mots clés : SUEDE, MODE ETHIQUE, CONSOMMATEUR, LABEL