Travaux universitaires - Avril 2020

Publié le :

Fairtrade and Market Efficiency : Fairtrade-Labeled Coffee in the Swedish Coffee Market

DUREVALL, Dick - University of Gothenburg, School of Business, Economics and Law - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020/04, 17 p. - Site de

Abstract : "Fairtrade labeling has the potential to increase market efficiency by connecting farmers to altruistic consumers who are willing to pay a premium for sustainability-certified products. A requirement for increased efficiency, though, is that the farmers’ benefits are larger than the Fairtrade processing costs and the excess payment by consumers that does not accrue to farmers ; otherwise direct transfers to farmers would be more efficient. This paper analyzes how excess payment for Fairtrade-labeled coffee is distributed in the Swedish market, using information on production costs and scanner data on almost all roasted and ground coffee products sold by retailers. A key finding is that roasters and retailers get 61–70%, while producer countries, in this paper comprising coffee farmers, cooperatives, middlemen, exporters, and Fairtrade International, get 24–31% ; Fairtrade Sweden gets 6–8%. These values are the upper and lower bounds that reflect assumptions made about the additional costs of producing roasted and ground Fairtrade coffee, given the cost of beans and the Fairtrade license. The Fairtrade label thus seems to create a coffee product that roasters and retailers can use to exploit their market power."


The Value of Fair Trade Fashion Through the Eyes of Female Consumers

McKARAHER O’NEAL, Kristen - Faculty of North Carolina State University, 2020, 89 p. - Site de

Abstract : "Fair trade is a trading partnership based on dialogue, transparency, and respect that seeks greater equity in international trade. The mission is to provide better trading conditions and securing the rights of marginalized workers. Fair trade is a topic of great concern because to have a sustainable economy, people need to be treated well and respected for their craft, especially within the fashion community. Currently, there is limited research on fair trade fashion and motivations of consumers to continually purchase fair trade. Thus, the purpose of this study was to further the understanding of female consumers’ behaviors and motivations towards purchasing fair trade fashion. This study investigated female consumers’ behaviors and motivations that are influential in their level of engagement with fair trade fashion. The specific variables that were explored among female consumers included : fair trade purchase intention, beliefs about fair trade, their pro- environmental behaviors, their sense of community, and shopping motivations. This study used a mixed method approach through qualitative interviews and a quantitative survey. Using a qualitative approach, seven female consumers of fair trade fashion were interviewed through semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The interviews were audio-taped, and afterwards transcribed verbatim for data analysis. Results from the qualitative portion of this study emerged four themes. Using a quantitative approach, an online survey was distributed to subjects recruited through a local, fair trade boutique owner. SPSS data analysis software was utilized to conduct various tests on the relationships of the data collected from the survey. Linear regression was used to examine the proposed relationships between shopping motivations, fair trade purchase intention, fair trade beliefs, pro-environmental behaviors, and sense of community. Results of the quantitative portion suggest there was no statistically significant relationship between the variables. A potential reason for this outcome is the unique type of consumer surveyed. Their relationship with the local, fair trade boutique and owner could be a strong motivator for them to purchase fair trade fashion instead of the variables assessed. Findings from this study will not only provide great insights on female consumers’ motivations for purchasing fair trade fashion, but also more importantly will provide great managerial implications to fair trade fashion brands in their endeavor to increase female consumer engagement. Limitations of this study were discussed, and recommendations were provided for future studies."


Estimating the economic incentives necessary for eliminating child labor in Ghanaian cocoa production

PLoS One, 2019/06, 12 p. - Site de

Abstract : "Concerns about the use of child labor in West African cocoa production became widespread in the early 2000s in many high-income countries. In 2015, in Ghana, 91.8% (or a total of 878,595) of the children working in the cocoa sector were involved in a form of hazardous work. Child labor in cocoa production is not just a symptom of poverty but also a contributing factor, as children often forgo a formal education to work in cocoa orchards. Current Ghanaian law prohibits child labor, but, with many cocoa households living in poverty, child labor becomes a necessity for survival, and as such, current child labor laws are rarely enforced. Therefore, an effective policy that eliminates child labor could compensate farmers by providing an economic incentive. In this paper, we develop and calibrate a farm household model to estimate the cocoa price premium necessary to eliminate child labor from cocoa production while leaving the farm household welfare unchanged. This welfare-neutral price premium removes the negative effects of eliminating child labor for the farm household. Varying degrees of child labor exist, with certain forms posing a greater risk to children’s wellbeing. The results show that eliminating the worst forms of child labor would require a cocoa price premium of 2.81% and eliminating regular work (non-hazardous work but over the maximum hours allowed for a child) and the worst forms would require an 11.81% premium, which could be paid for by the well-established Ghanaian Cocoa Marketing Board. An incentive for the Cocoa Marketing Board to pay the price premium and monitor and enforce this policy would be the ability to differentiate their cocoa as child-labor free and not lose market shares to countries who cannot currently certify this practice."


Do sustainability standards benefit smallholder farmers also when accounting for cooperative effects ? Evidence from Cote d’Ivoire

Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, 2019, 40 p. - Site de

Abstract : "While many studies analyzed effects of sustainability standards – such as Fairtrade or Rainforest Alliance – on smallholder farmers in developing countries, most did not sufficiently account for systematic differences between certified and non-certified farmers. Certified farmers are typically organized in cooperatives. When sampling only from a small number of cooperatives, as previous studies did, it is not easy to disentangle certification effects from possible cooperative effects. Here, we address this shortcoming by randomly sampling from a large number of cooperatives, thus capturing a wide range of institutional heterogeneity. In particular, we collect and use data from cocoa farmers in Cote d’Ivoire that are organized in Fairtrade-certified and non-certified cooperatives. Regression models with instrumental variables show that Fairtrade has positive and significant effects on cocoa yields, prices, and living standards. These effects remain significant also after controlling for cooperative characteristics, but the magnitude of the estimates changes. We draw two conclusions. First, in Cote d’Ivoire, Fairtrade certification benefits farmers economically. Second, and more generally, cooperative characteristics are jointly correlated with certification and relevant outcomes, which needs to be accounted for to avoid bias when evaluating the benefits of sustainability standards in the small farm sector."


Infraestructuras de Confianza y Sostenibilidad. Una mirada a las relaciones entre sostenibilidad y estandarización en la política internacional de producción cafetera

Jangwa Pana, 2019, vol. 18, n°2, pp. 214-231 - Site de

Resumen : « Este artículo presenta el aporte de los Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia y la Tecnología en la comprensión de las configuraciones sociales y técnicas que introducen los estándares de sostenibilidad en la producción de cafetera. Esta literatura hace énfasis en la importancia de entender las infraestructuras materiales y sociales que sostienen, a menudo de forma invisible, prácticas y órdenes institucionales. En el caso de la producción agrícola, una agenda política global que promueve la sostenibilidad ha atraído un conjunto de actores que prometen producción más sostenible a través de su estandarización. Este artículo explora el potencial analítico y empírico del estudio de los procesos de estandarización en café, especialmente en el caso de los sellos de sostenibilidad. »


Analyse de la durabilité du café : production et consommation en Amérique

SCHWANKNER, Jennifer - Université de Sherbrooke, Maîtrise en environnement, 2019/07, 93 p. - Site de

Résumé : « L’objectif de cet essai est d’analyser la durabilité de la production et de la consommation du café en Amérique afin d’émettre des recommandations. La problématique provient du fait que le café est un produit cultivé dans les pays de l’hémisphère Sud, alors qu’il est grandement consommé dans les pays de l’hémisphère Nord. Il existe alors une inégalité socio-économique entre les producteurs et les consommateurs. Certes, les organismes de certification internationaux travaillent à la diminution de ces inégalités pour améliorer la qualité de vie des agriculteurs en plus de tenter de limiter les impacts de la culture sur l’environnement. Au niveau de la production du café, la durabilité est remise en doute en raison des changements climatiques qui affectent la position géographique des plantations en plus d’influencer leur rendement. Aussi, la culture actuelle en totale exposition au soleil est à l’origine de la déforestation de nombreux territoires, comme le Cerrado et la forêt atlantique au Brésil. Ce problème s’accentuera avec la hausse de la consommation. D’un point de vue socio-économique, le prix du café fixé par l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) peut parfois être très bas et instable, rendant précaire la qualité de vie des producteurs. Finalement, les différentes méthodes d’infusion contribuent aux impacts environnementaux liés à la consommation, comme l’utilisation d’eau et la production de matières résiduelles. L’analyse révèle que les organismes de commerce équitable, comme Fairtrade et Rainforest Alliance, jouent un rôle important quant aux conditions de travail des producteurs et à la préservation de l’environnement. Dans certains cas, il peut cependant être difficile d’établir un lien direct entre certains bénéfices et ladite certification, et l’équité du commerce équitable est discutable. Au terme de l’analyse, les recommandations émises sont de privilégier l’achat de café certifié, mais aussi de revoir la distribution des profits au sein de la chaîne commerciale. Il est également recommandé de miser sur la recherche d’une espèce de caféier hybride qui s’adaptera aux futures réalités climatiques. Finalement, il est recommandé pour les consommateurs de modifier leurs habitudes d’infusion du café pour limiter leurs impacts environnementaux. »