Travaux universitaires - Mai 2017

Publié le :

Réseaux et identités dans les circuits courts alimentaires, entre marché et innovation sociale

CHIFFOLEAU, Yuna - Université Jean Jaurès, Université de Toulouse 2, Sociologie – 2016, 124 p. - Site de le-gout-des-autres.net

Résumé de l’auteur : « Les circuits courts alimentaires, limitant le nombre d’intermédiaires entre producteurs et consommateurs, ne sont pas nouveaux dans les pays du Nord mais suscitent un regain d’intérêt, en France en particulier, depuis la fin des années 1990. Dans ce mémoire, nous voulons montrer en quoi ces circuits, aujourd’hui encore controversés, sont intéressants non seulement pour rendre compte de systèmes alimentaires en mutation mais aussi pour contribuer à des questions centrales ou émergentes en sociologie et en sociologie économique. Inscrit dans les sociologies de l’action, s’appuyant sur les apports d’Harrison White à la sociologie économique en particulier, ce mémoire vise à participer aux travaux prenant en compte le rôle des réseaux sociaux dans la construction sociale des marchés et le développement des innovations sociales. Notre objectif est toutefois de montrer l’intérêt d’intégrer également le rôle des institutions et des personnes dans l’analyse, dans le contexte d’une société d’individus invitant à s’interroger sur la nature du lien social. Croisant capitalisation de travaux et présentation de nos résultats issus de recherches en partenariat, ce mémoire veut aussi contribuer à la connaissance d’un objet qui reste méconnu du fait de travaux ciblés surtout sur les circuits « alternatifs ». Nous comprenons ainsi leur renouveau et leur diffusion à travers la co-évolution de différentes identités collectives, soumise à la quête de statut des identités individuelles qui les composent. Nous approfondissons les mécanismes en jeu à travers l’étude d’un marché de plein vent, qui nous permet de discuter à la fois la formation de la confiance et des prix dans les marchés, le changement de pratiques en agriculture et dans l’alimentation, entre innovation et bifurcation, et le changement d’échelle de l’innovation sociale. En concluant par une hypothèse « forte » quant au futur des circuits courts alimentaires, nous ouvrons le mémoire sur différentes questions de recherche, en revenant sur l’intérêt de ces circuits dans deux perspectives : compléter les recherches sur l’alimentation, à l’INRA en particulier, mais aussi s’affranchir plus radicalement du modèle de l’innovation technologique pour penser et accompagner les chemins vers de nouveaux horizons, en s’appuyant sur de nouveaux indicateurs de richesse. »

Mots clés : FRANCE, CIRCUIT COURT ALIMENTAIRE, PRODUCTEUR, CONSOMATEUR, PRIX, INNOVATION SOCIALE, SOCIOLOGIE


Environmental Governance of Pesticides in Ethiopian Vegetable and Cut Flower Production

Belay Tizazu Mengistie - Thèse de doctorat, Université de Wageningen, 2016, 270 p. - Site de edepot.wur.nl

« The development and enforcement of effective pesticide policy and regulations represent important components to address these recognized problems. The particular case of pesticides use in Ethiopia is here developed as an opportunity to better understand pesticide governance. As an agricultural country, Ethiopia relies heavily on the use of pesticides to protect crops and increase yields. During the past decades, Ethiopia has experienced an approximate four-fold increase in pesticide use. Ethiopia has developed a pesticides regulatory system with procedures and regulations governing the whole pesticide life cycle : from registration and procurement, import/local manufacture of pesticides to disposal of empty chemical containers. A pertinent and timely question is, whether the Ethiopian policy on pesticide registration, distribution and use are implemented in an effective and sustainable way ? Empirical research on the pesticide governance in Ethiopia has not been done up till now. In this light, the main objective of this study is to examine the interface between policy and practice with respect to governing pesticides in relation to the challenges of registration, importation, distribution and use and to review how different actors (state, market actors and the farmers) can better govern pesticides to achieve environmental sustainability and workers’ health and safety. »

Mots clés : ETHIOPIE, LEGUME, FLEUR, FILIERE, PESTICIDE, POLITIQUE GOUVERNEMENTALE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE, CONDITION DE TRAVAIL


The Fairtrade Carbon Credits : a fair method to tackle the climate change

University of Venice, Master’s Degree programme in International Management, Second Cycle, 2016, 152 p. - Site de dspace.unive.it

« The thesis, which is divided into six chapters, aim to deepen the Fairtrade Climate Standard and to demonstrate how the FCCs are an effective way to tackle the climate change with a view to sustainable development. »

Mots clés : ALLEMAGNE, PEROU, AFRIQUE, AMERIQUE LATINE, ASIE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, CHANGEMENT CLIMATIQUE, CREDIT CARBONE


The Seeds of Stability : A systematic analysis of the coffee market in Monteverde, Costa Rica

LAZO, Jezyca - Université du Colorado at Boulder, Undergraduate Honors Theses, Environmental Studies Program, mai 2017, 53 p. - Site de scholar.colorado.edu

Abstract : « This purpose of this study is to illuminate the relationships of actors in the coffee market of Monteverde, Costa Rica. As a continuation of my previous research surveying coffee retailers and producers, this study targeted consumers as the final actor in the commodity chain. With the award of an Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) Grant I returned to Monteverde in January to conduct participatory field research. This was done through a brief survey of ten questions intended to gain information about consumer knowledge on the sustainability of Monteverde’s coffee production. Responses of 50 participants were collected in two popular coffee shops, Café de Monteverde and Choco Café. In addition to my survey results, I utilized informal conversations with respondents and locals to analyze the market as a whole. I found that my results are not fully reflective of the complexities associated with factors which influence the decision-making of these actors. The research I conducted is unique to this particular coffee market but can stand as a basis for further research from multiple fields of study. »

Mots clés : COSTA RICA, CAFE DURABLE, CAFE EQUITABLE, LABEL, FILIERE


Do young consumers care about ethics ? Influence of DEAR and GDI on buying preferences : A pilot study

ROUBIK, H. ; MAZANCOVA, J. - Department of Sustainable Technologies, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague - Agronomy Research, 2017/01, 10 p. - Site de researchgate.net

Abstract : « These days’ consumers can express their concern about ethical behaviour of companies by means of ethical buying and consumer behaviour. The purpose of this study was to investigate how DEAR (Development Education Awareness Rising) and GDI (Global Development Issues) knowledge affects consumers preferences among higher education students in the Czech Republic. The pilot survey covered 136 students out of total 488 from Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences (CULS Prague) and was conducted from February to March 2014. Data collection was done through online survey. Collected data were categorized, coded and analysed in a statistical programme Statistica 10. In the study we examined DEAR impacts on buying preferences and therefore revealed current preferences, intentions connected with knowledge background and practices among selected university students regarding ethical and local consumption. Our results show a positive correlation (ρ=0.664, α=0.005) between examined factors – knowledge of specific terms (effects of GDI and DEAR) with socially responsible consumers’ behaviour. If consumers are well informed, positively influenced and have access to ethical products, they act as socially responsible consumers. Therefore, there is proven importance of education and access to information as a key component for conscious behaviour. These days Global Development Education and Development Education Awareness Rising should be considered not only alternatively in education, but become more common parts of educational process. This paper is a pilot study to be followed by in depth research covering representative samples of students at Czech HEIs which have incorporated DEAR in their study curricula. »

Mots clés : REPUBLIQUE TCHEQUE, ETUDIANT, CONSOMMATION ETHIQUE, ENQUETE


Sustainable Tourism Development in Eritre : Assessing the Potential of the Tourism Industry as an Asset to Economic Development and Poverty Alleviation in Massawa and the Dahlak Archipelago

Royal Roads University Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, Master of Arts in Human Security and Peacebuilding, 2017, 144 p. - Site de viurrspace.ca

« Sustainable tourism is increasingly becoming recognized as an important economic asset for developing countries, with three tourism specific targets established in the 2015-2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, there is a significant dearth in empirical and context-specific research on the role of tourism in developing countries. This research undertakes a destination-specific assessment in Eritrea’s Massawa City and the adjacent Dahlak Archipelago to examine the potential for sustainable tourism development to contribute towards economic growth and poverty alleviation. The research adapts theTourism Assessment Process (TAP) to conduct key informant interviews with local stakeholders and over 700 resident and visitor surveys in the target destinations to understand local and tourist perceptions towards the capacity of the tourism sector to sustainably contribute to the well -being of local communities and the surrounding environment, and compete in the international market. »

Mots clés : ERYTHREE, TOURISME DURABLE, PAUVRETE


Análisis de los Factores que Influyen en el Proceso de Upgrading en las Organizaciones de Comercio Justo en Ecuador

GUEVARA PÁEZ Javier Francisco ; VARGAS YANGUA, Karen Gabriela - Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Carrera de Economía, 2017, 76 p. - Site de dspace.uce.edu.ec

Resumen : "El comercio justo promueve el desarrollo de capacidades de organizaciones de productor es que debería traducirse en un ascenso y mejora de la posición a lo largo de la cadena de valor. Sin embargo, no todas las organizaciones llevan a cabo procesos de upgrading debido a factores que influyen en sus procesos productivos y/o de los productos. Esta investigación propone que los factores determinantes de los procesos de upgrading son : i) las políticas económicas, ii) las luchas de poder, iii) la falta de infraestructura tecnológica, recursos e información, iv) la volatilidad e incertidumbre del mercado, v) la capacidad de innovación y cultura asociativa de las organizaciones y vi) la consciencia social y consumo responsable. La mayoría de los factores analizados en esta investigación tienden a limitar dichos procesos. Debido a estos factores las organizaciones ecuatorianas de comercio justo mantienen una tendencia a la producción y comercialización de productos primarios con escasa y poca transformación. »

Mots clés : EQUATEUR, ORGANISATION DE COMMERCE EQUITABLE, POUVOIR PUBLIC, INFORMATION, EVOLUTION, CHAINE DE VALEUR


Tipología de consumido resde productos de Comercio Justo y variables que inciden en su compra

Revista Española de Estudios Agrosociales y Pesqueros, nº 237, 2014, 38 p. - Site de ageconsearch.umn.edu

« Global consumption is still on the increase despite the grave crisis that is affecting the planet, and it is still the driving force in the development of certain nations. However this growth is not the same for everyone, as disproportionate consumption is harming developing countries. In a situation like this, responsible consumers who choose to consume products made by following a criterion of justice, equality and solidarity towards developing countries are the ones who can influence the present and transform the future of these nations. Throughout February-April 2011 we carried out research with a view to analyzing the situation and establishing a typology of this profile of consumer, as well as the influence that ignorance about Fair Trade products and their lack of accessibility at the point of sale has on their purchase. As a result of this study, we can firstly define the profile which characterizes this kind of consumer, and secondly, conclude that knowledge and accessibility at the point of sale of Fair Trade products coincide in the intention to buy this kind of product, the difference lying in the affinity or otherwise with this movement. »

Mots clés : ESPAGNE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, CONSOMMATION, MOTIVATION D’ACHAT