Acquisitions - Avril 2016

Publié le :

TRAVAUX UNIVERSITAIRES

Organizaciones de pequeños productores, certificaciones y competitividad : experiencia reciente en Costa Rica

Revista de Politica Economica, vol.1, n°2, 2016, 24 p. - Site de revistas.una.ac.cr

Resumen : « Este artículo indaga si la aplicación de certificaciones ambientales ha significado un mejoramiento de la competitividad de los pequeños y medianos productores agrícolas. Para ello se realiza un análisis del entorno de las certificaciones tanto internacional como en la institucionalidad en Costa Rica, y la aproximación a las realidades de las experiencias de las organizaciones de pequeños productores con base en los resultados de una encuesta realizada en el año 2015. El artículo concluye que la estrategia de certificarse ha permitido un mejor posicionamiento y por consiguiente estabilidad, en la cadena de valor, aunque para las organizaciones y las instancias generadoras de políticas hay áreas donde mejorar, como por ejemplo los costos y cambios en los procesos y la resistencia cultural a este tipo de iniciativas. « 

Mots clés : COSTA RICA, PRODUIT AGRICOLE, AGRICULTURE DURABLE, CERTIFICATION


Terceira Onda do Café : Base Conceitual e Aplicações

GUIMARAES, Elisa – Universidade Federal de Lavros (Costa Rica), Programa en Administracao, Gesto de Negocios, Economia e Mercados, 2016, 135 p. - Site de repositorio.ufla.br

Resumen : « Considera-se que existem três movimentos, também denominados “ondas”, influenciando o mercado e o consumo mundiais de café. Cada um apresenta um conjunto diversificado de prioridades e filosofias, fazendo com que tais movimentos coexistam e, por vezes, sobreponham-se ou “transbordem”, influenciando o movimento seguinte. Neste sentido, este trabalho foi construído em duas etapas. Na primeira, objetivou-se definir ampla e cientificamente o conceito de Terceira Onda do Café, ainda com definição difusa e sentidos variados para os diversos elos da cadeia, de forma a estabelecer uma base conceitual que facilite a discussão e construção de novos conhecimentos científicos acerca do tema. Utilizou-se ampla pesquisa bibliográfica em materiais acadêmicos e não acadêmicos, aliada a uma análise de conteúdo qualitativa e categorial. Na segunda etapa, objetivou-se responder à questão : como a Terceira Onda é adotada no Brasil e em Minas Gerais e quais são as principais oportunidades e desafios à expansão deste movimento em nível nacional e estadual ? Desta forma, realizaram-se entrevistas estruturadas com sete especialistas da cadeia do café, bem como entrevistas semiestruturadas em profundidade com proprietários de três cafeterias mineiras baseadas no conceito de Terceira Onda. Na primeira etapa, a Primeira, Segunda e Terceira ondas foram subdivididas, respectivamente, em três, quatro e seis categorias, representativas de seus temas mais abordados, bem como se estabeleceu vinte pontos de diferença entre as três ondas. Tais resultados permitiram compreender a Terceira Onda como um movimento no mercado de cafés especiais, marcado por significativa mudança de percepção do produto, que passou a ser considerado tão ou mais complexo que o vinho, sazonal, exclusivo e singular, e pautado pela busca e trabalho conjunto por uma qualidade excepcional em todas as etapas da cadeia produtiva, desde a produção dos grãos até o consumo final da bebida. Para tanto, são adotadas diversas práticas, amplamente discutidas neste trabalho. Na segunda etapa, concluiu-se que, apesar de tardia, a adoção da Terceira Onda no Brasil e em Minas Gerais é similar ao restante do mundo, com apenas algumas diferenças culturais, tendo grande potencial de expansão, mas também alguns desafios, ligados, principalmente, à já estabelecida cultura de consumo de café commodity. Quanto ao estudo da adoção pelas cafeterias mineiras, observou-se grande adesão aos princípios deste movimento, mas com adoção de duas posturas distintas, de purismo e transição. »

Mots clés : BRESIL, CAFE DURABLE


Nuevos Emprendimientos Turísticos en el Ámbito de las Comunidades Indígenas Latinoamericanas : ¿ Oportunidad u Oportunismo ?

PALACIOS, Carlos Garcia – Revista Turismo y Desarollo Local, vol.8, n°19, décembre 2015 17 p.- Site de eumed.net/rev/turydes/19/indigenas.html

Resumen : « Después de más de cinco siglos de silencio, los pueblos indígenas han reaparecido en el plano internacional, con una inusitada fuerza reivindicativa. En un escenario de globalización, que trata de despojarlos, no sólo de sus tierras y recursos naturales, sino también de sus culturas y conocimientos tradicionales. (DEL PRADO, G. 2002) Ante este panorama aparece en escena un nuevo actor : el “turismo comunitario o indígena”, el cual conjuga sus costumbres y tradiciones ancestrales y contemporáneas, fomentando de este modo un proceso de intercambio cultural con el visitante o turista” (CASTRO Y LLANCALEO, 2002). Pero, ¿qué es lo que motiva a estos pueblos para desarrollar dicha actividad ? ¿Qué papel desempeñan los organismos internacionales en este asunto ? Y, en todo caso, ¿la falta de cumplimiento de acuerdos ratificados no estará abriendo una puerta peligrosa para que el sector privado obtenga beneficios económicos espurios ? »

Mots clés : AMERIQUE LATINE, TOURISME COMMUNAUTAIRE, AMERINDIEN


Place, Space & Power : From Under the Baobab Tree to a Fair Trade Cooperative - Women’s Experiences in Shea Butter Production in Upper East Ghana

BOODHOO LEEGSMA, Aissa - University of Ottawa, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, février 2016, 153 p. - Site de ruor.uottawa.ca

Abstract : « Shea butter production in West Africa has been dominated by women and Northern Ghana specifically is a leading global producer. This thesis explores women’s perceptions of power, control and agency in the Ojoba Women’s Fair Trade Cooperative in Upper East Ghana. I add to the literature on women’s experiences with and in fair trade. I examine how the shea industry and the cooperative provide a market place for women and a space for women to cooperate and resist power structures. I emphasize how the Western language of empowerment builds substantially from pre-existing women’s networks and labour sharing practices in the agricultural context. The thesis evaluates the factors within Ojoba that contribute to women’s empowerment. To be empowered’ in Ojoba reflects a variety of understandings, experiences and locations. Indeed “women’s empowerment” may misrepresent how the women are capable of building a physical and social space of safety, debate and growth. »

Mots clés : GHANA, BEURRE DE KARITE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, COOPERATIVE, FEMME


Connoisseurship Consumption and Market Evolution : An Institutional Theory Perspective on the Growth of Specialty Coffee Consumption in the USA

QUINTAO, Ronan ; BRITO, Eliane - Revista Brasileira de Marketing, janvier-mars 2016, n°1, vol. 15, 15 p. - Site de revistabrasileiramarketing.org

Abstract : « How does the increasing prevalence of connoisseurship consumption affect the market ? Drawing from institutional theory, we develop answers to this question. Inspired by the legitimacy concept, we evaluate the specialty coffee consumption context in order to advance and systematically analyze the role of connoisseurship consumption in the market. In extensive qualitative study, 542 newspaper articles from 1980 to 2013 were collected, and 265 were analyzed. This research offers two main contributions to the existing literature. First, several types of cultural - cognitive legitimacy (including consumer generational, health concerns, and taste) began to shift in the 1980s, which increased the connoisseurship consumption and affected the market well into the 2000s. Second, connoisseurship consumption arises when marketplace actors intersect with the tastes and desires of consumers. »

Mots clés : ETATS UNIS, CAFE DURABLE, CONSOMMATION, PERSPECTIVE


An Examination of Fairtrade Impact Disclosure Practices

SEMEEN, Homaira – University of Dhaka, Queensland University of Technology, Master in Business Administration, 2016, 241 p.- Site de perplexe/eprints.qut.edu.au

Abstract : « This thesis examines the motivation behind Fairtrade impact disclosure practices through a focus on a divergent group of organizations involved with Fairtrade. Whilst a plethora of studies in different disciplines have documented the growing concern of stakeholders over the presence of social inequities in Fairtrade practices, there is a lack of research examining Fairtrade impact disclosures and stakeholder s’narratives from a social equity perspective. Moving beyond the existing theories adopted in the Social and Environmental Accounting (SEA) literature, this thesis adopts Bourdieu’s institutional sociology to understand the motivation of Fairtrade organizations in disclosing the impact of their business on producers’ lives. Bourdieu’s theoretical concepts provide new insights into how dominant actors use impact disclosures to mediate tensions, challenges, and contradictions in a field of struggle. »

Mots clés : COMMERCE EQUITABLE, ORGANISATION, INEGALITE, DIVULGATION DES IMPACTS, BOURDIEU


“Made In Bangladesh” : Improving Women’s Health and Workplace Rights in the Factories of Multinational Corporations

NOMZANA, Augustin – John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, Master of Arts in Public Management, 2016, 60 p. - Site de //jscholarship.library.jhu.edu », 2016, 60 pages.

Abstract : « Bangladesh’s garment industry was booming with little consideration for its workers until the 2013 Rana Plaza collapse confirmed global concerns about poor working conditions. Today, more than 3.2 million women workers, who make up 80% of the industry’s workforce, remain subject to these vulnerable workplaces, not only suffering in tragedies like factory fires and collapses but also struggling through their daily upkeep with poor health and management’s violations of their rights. At the expense of these workers, multinational corporations like H&M, Wal-Mart, Nike and more capitalize on a low-cost business model to successfully compete in global markets and drive up their bottom lines. But the continuation of this exploitative behavior for trade is unsustainable for these women, their rôles in society, and even U.S. - Bangladeshi trade relations. After the U.S. Joined other global bodies in penalizing Bangladesh for its inability to address workers’ conditions, these conditions only worsened. Hence, this decision memorandum proposes a more targeted U.S. Trade policy tool that aims to improve women’s health and workplace rights in these Bangladeshi factories. The first part of the policy focuses on the profile of the majority of workers – women – addressing their health issues and rights violations as a mechanism to further improve working conditions. To support the effectiveness of these improvements, the second part of the policy addresses the trade issues that contribute to the problems faced by these women workers. However, considering the nature of American politics in 2016, the memorandum concludes with a recommendation to the President of the United States to rather take immediate action on addressing the women’s issues and to, therefore, postpone efforts in addressing the second component of the policy for a more appropriate political climate. »

Mots clés : BANGLADESH, ETATS UNIS, INDUSTRIE TEXTILE, CONDITION DE TRAVAIL, FEMME, MULTINATIONALE, POUVOIRS PUBLICS