Travaux universitaires - Février 2021

Publié le :

Investigating Australian and New Zealand Fairtrade representatives’ and blockchain technology experts’ attitudes towards blockchain technology as a potential to improve Fairtrade certification

WAKEMAN DYER, Celia - Master of Commerce in Management in the University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 2020, 102 pages - Site de canterbury.ac.nz

Abstract : “This thesis investigates New Zealand and Australian Fairtrade (FT) representatives’and blockchain technology (BCT) experts’attitudestowards BCTas a potential to improve FT certification. After reviewing literature on FT certification, their goals, benefits and weaknesses, a gap has been identified, as to the best of my knowledge academics have not yet recognised the extent to which BCT has the potential to improve FT’s certification areas of weakness. Although it has been found that (agricultural) supply chains embedded in blockchain offer transparency, traceability and simplified supply chains (Baralla et al., 2018), there is no literature that provides insight into the way FT representatives view BCT as a potentialto improve FT’s certification.Data was captured through qualitative semi-structured interviews with six New Zealand and Australian FT representatives and six BCT experts to gather their perceptions and attitudes towards the adoption of FT onto blockchain. Thematic content analysis was then utilised to determine articipants’attitudes. Secondly, data was measured against theTechnology Readiness Index to establish participant’s readiness to adopt BCT.This research produced a number of key findings, discussing participants’attitudes in relation to the impact that implementing BCT would have on FT certification and covering their readiness to accept and adopt BCT.A range of implications and limitations for this research study is discussed further on, as well as the potential practical and theoretical contributions that can help FT understand BCT as a potential to improve FT certification. Followed by a number of opportunities for future research that can build on this research area.”

Mots clés : AUSTRALIE, NOUVELLEZ ZELANDE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY, PERSPECTIVE


Implementación del Proceso de Comercio Justo en la actividad Bananera de la Hacienda "PORVENIR", Cantónpasaje, Año 202

PACHECO DIAS, Jorge Michael - Universidad técnica de Machala, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Carrera de Gestión Ambiental, 2020, 38 pages – Site 186.3.32.121/bitstream

Resumen : “El presente estudio trata acerca de la certificación del comercio justo y lo que debe hacer una finca bananera para poder acceder a los beneficios de este nuevo sistema comercial alternativo. Su finalidad principal fue evaluar el proceso productivo y demásítems que componen la lista de verificación de la Hacienda Bananera “Porvenir”, la misma que está ubicada en la Parroquia Bellavista, cantón Pasaje. La certificación aportaría grandes beneficios para la plantación porque se encarga no solo de regular el precio, sino también aporta en lo social y lo ambiental. Esto se lo realizaría mediante la observación in-situ para determinar si la plantación es apta o no para la certificación. El enfoque principal de la investigación es mixto, es decir, es cualitativa y cuantitativa porque se enfoca en describir el sujeto de estudio de forma holística, aplicando métodos como la entrevista y observaciones in-situ. En la parte de cuantitativa, se debe a que también se utilizaron las tabulaciones del checklist para conocerqué porcentaje de cumplimiento tiene la hacienda bananera. Debido a las herramientas aplicadas, se obtuvo que la plantación cumple con el 97,4% del total de todos los ítems necesarios para la certificación, y que incumple con el 2,6% del checklist. Esto nos quiere decir que, a pesar de no cumplir con todos los ítems la finca aún podría certificarse debido a que solo necesita cumplir con al menos un 80% del total y luego aplicar los debidos correctivos, los cuales se pueden observar en el plan de acción.”

Mots clés : EQUATEUR, BANANE EQUITABLE, IMPACT, CERTIFICATION, PROJET


Fair trade phenomenon and its evolution in Visegrad countries

ZYSK, W. - International Entrepreneurship Review, 2020, vol.6, n°4,18 pages – Site ier.uek.krakow.pl/

Abstract : « The objectives of this paper are as follows : to describe how the Fair Trade movement supports the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also using A Theory of Change, to analyze the Trade Fair phenomenon in the global scale, in the V4 countries and make a comparison with selected EU countries as well as an attempt to develop recommendations for the Visegrad Group countries in terms of the Fair Trade development.”

Mots clés : HONGRIE, POLOGNE, SLOVAQUIE, TCHEQUIE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE,
PERSPECTIVE


Co-operatives, coffee and crisis : The impact of Fair Trade coffee during the coffee crisis of 1999-2004

HEMMING LANG, Andreas - University of HelsinkiFaculty of Social Sciences Development studies Master’sthesis, novembre 2020, 112 pages - Site de helda.helsinki.fi

“This thesis studies the impact of Fair Trade coffee during the coffee crisis of 1999-2004, focusing on Fair Trade producing cooperatives in Latin America and especially the economic impacts of belonging to the Fair Trade coffee network at a time when conventional coffee prices had plummeted to levels not seen in a hundred years. The rationale behind the research topic is to explore the possibilities of an alternative trading structure, as conventional production and the concomitant trade of primary products has historically been fraught with numerous problems, including declining terms of trade. A global value chain approach is used as a theoretical framework for the analysis of both the conventional and Fair Trade coffee markets, and is used to scrutinize the concentrations of power among the different actors involved in the path of coffee from producer to consumer. As four fifths of Fair Trade coffee was produced in Latin America at the time of the coffee crisis, four case studies were chosen, concerning cooperatives in Mexico and Nicaragua. These case studies are studied in depth to gain a deeper understanding of the involvement in the Fair Trade coffee network. The studies indicate that at the microlevel, belonging to the Fair Trade network did indeed lead to significantly higher coffee prices received by producers. While the Fair Trade price that farmers received was up to more than double the price of selling to conventional middlemen, some producing cooperatives only managed to sell parts of their harvest as Fair Trade coffee, thus limiting the impact of belonging to the Fair Trade network. At a macro level Fair Trade was a marginal actor, with some half a million growers being a part of the Fair Trade network at the time of the crisis, while approximately 25 million growers were involved in conventional coffee production, thus limiting the possible impact of Fair Trade coffee. Other results were less robust. One explicit goal of Fair Trade, promoting gender equality, was mostly dependent on the previous local gender relations, and no clear improvement was found in Fair Trade producing communities. Stemming migration was another explicit Fair Trade goal, and here there results indicate that in some cases Fair Trade actually enabled migration, as higher incomes can enable people to migrate. As Fair Trade has been in the vanguard for ethical trading and ethical sourcing, one of the largest potential impacts of FairTrade is that of change in mainstream corporate culture through example and discussion. This is however a topic that warrants further research. »

Mots clés : AMERIQUE LATINE, MEXIQUE, NICARAGUA, CRISE, CAFE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, FAIRTRADE INTERNATIONAL, IMPACT, GENRE, MIGRATION, GOUVERNANCE


Competition among different alternative food movements : Finding space for the Fair Trade movement

MAKITA, Rie - Discussion Paper Series, Association of Gakushuin International Social Sciences Studies, Gakushuin University, 2020, 21 pages - Site de researchgate.net

Abstract : « Several movements aim to improve food systems in the Global North and South, but they differ in what they offer, and some areas of tension may exist between them. Rather than examine which movements are better, we need to know how they can coexist to achieve a better future. This literature review sheds light on the uniqueness of one such movement, Fair Trade, which has linked the Global North and South, and explores how Fair Trade can or cannot coexist with other food movements, namely the local food and food sovereignty movements. The results of the review suggest potential research directions that emerge from the interactions between these different food movements.”

Mots clés : COMMERCE EQUITABLE, SYSTEME ALIMENTAIRE, SOUVERAINETE ALIMENTAIRE, RELATION NORD SUD, MARCHE LOCAL


Comunicación Decolonial : Estrategia de comunicación para la iniciativa de comercio justo dela comunidad indígena “Vencedores”

ANDRADE ALVAREZ, Brenda Annette - Universidad Casa Grande, Facultad de Comunicación Mónica Herrera, Guayaquil, Ecuador – novembre 2020, 61 pages - Site dspace.casagrande.edu.ec

Resumen : “El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como propósito explorar las manifestaciones culturales de la comunidad “Vencedores” ubicada en la Amazonía ecuatoriana. Desde una aproximación decolonial, se realizó una conceptualización de una estrategia de comunicación para la iniciativa de comercio justo de sus productos artesanales y turísticos. Para el desarrollo de este estudio, se consideró la metodología y perspectiva decolonial, desde la aplicación de la investigación Acción –Participativa (IAP). Esto permitió realizar una revisión teórica y documental del trabajo de campo recopilado del Semillero de Investigación : Retratos de la Amazonía del 2017 al 2019, identificando los puntos de encuentros entre las formas de comunicación occidental y los saberes otros. Se generaron intercambios de significaciones culturales permitiendo la creación de una estrategia de comunicación participativa desde una perspectiva decolonial con las voces y conocimientos de la comunidad.”

Mots clés : EQUATEUR, AMAZONIE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, COMMUNICATION, DECOLONIALISME, POPULATION AUTOCHTONE


Commerce as ‘total social fact’ : Fair trade practices in Dili

Chapitre V de l’ouvrage “Performing Mondernities : Pedagogies and technologies in the making of contemporary Timor-Leste” publié par l’ Associação Brasileira de Antropologia, 2020, pages 128-149 - Site de aba.abant.org.br

“This chapter considers strategies for commercializing artifacts aimed at empowering vulnerable populations in Timor-Leste by analyzing the narratives accompanying such practices. We discuss the form and content of shops, product-information folders and labels in order to understand the moralities, meanings and effects that are attributed to buying and selling in particular contexts. We argue that these marketing strategies can potentially turn acts of buying into explicit ‘total social facts’ (Mauss 2003),5by articulating the effects of justice, power, identification, and so on. Moreover, we suggest that narratives introducing artifacts are apparatuses for ascribing their purchase in at least two simultaneous exchange regimes : one based on the market, the other on the gift. The chapter describes the mediations through which such effects are produced.”

Mots clés : TIMOR ORIENTAL, DILI, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, CULTURE TRADITIONNELLE, IMPACT, ETHIQUE


The Impact of Fair Trade Certification for Development on Shea Supply Chain

MARRUÁS ALMEIDA, Karlla Julianna - Universidad de Jaen, Master en Economia y Dessarrollo Territorial, décembre 2020, 70 pages - Site de tauja.ujaen.es

Abstract : “This research aims to analyse the impact of fair trade certification on improving the lives of producers involved in the shea supply chain in West Africa. The analysis was conducted by using indicators developed under the methodology of M&E Systems and the Theory of Change in accordance with the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The results showed that fair trade certification has the potential to promote positive impacts on the lives of workers and communities involved in shea production, regarding social, economic and environmental aspects. The fair trade certification contributes to territorial development, and influences especially on topics such as Labour and Employment, Gender Equality, Human Rights, Capacity Building and Environmentally Friendly Production.”

Mots clés : AFRIQUE DE L’OUEST, KARITE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, PRODUCTEUR, IMPACT