Travaux universitaires - Février 2020

Publié le :

Creating Ethical Markets or Marketing Ethics ?A Critical Exploration of Ethical Value Networks in Chilean and Peruvian Viticulture and Oenology

FOSTER WILLIAMS, Peter - Victoria University of Wellington, Discipline : philosophie, 2019, 288 pages - Site de researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz

Abstract : « ...This research critically explores two examples of ethical value networks in South American viticulture. It examines the use of fair trade certifications in Chilean wine and the protected designation of origin mark on pisco from Peru. This research emphasises the importance of local social, economic, and political contexts in the formation and outcomes of ethical value networks. It argues that despite the potential of the two studied networks to encourage local social and community development, entrenched socio-economic inequalities in Chile and Peru have hindered the expected positive outcomes of these ethical value networks. Moreover, this thesis argues that the studied networks have in many ways worsened local rural inequalities by supporting industrial and newer producers while excluding the most vulnerable actors in the wine and pisco sectors. Therefore, although this thesis illustrates the potential capacities of ethical value networks in fostering local development outcomes through product labelling, it also reveals the main limitations of these networks as currently implemented. »

Mots clés : CHILI, PEROU, VIN, PISCO, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, ETHIQUE, INEGALITE SOCIOECONOMIQUE, CRITIQUE, PRODUCTEUR


Quinua export. Producto milenario, mercado e instituciones en el altiplano boliviano

Temas Sociales (La Paz), n°45, 2019, 26 pages- Site de scielo.org.bo

Resumen : « La investigación analiza las relaciones sociales entre diferentes actores e instituciones en la región intersalar y el altiplano paceño, actores que intervienen en la distribución y mercadeo de la quinua ecológica y convencional. El rescate y comercialización del grano son parte importante en la cadena productiva. Se utilizó la metodología cualitativa apoyada en datos cuantitativos. El presente artículo visibiliza la cadena productiva de la quinua y muestra los tipos de intermediarios en la comercialización del grano. »

Mots clés : BOLIVIE, ALTIPLANO, QUINOA, AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE, CHAINE DE PRODUCTION


Governance and Sustainability of Certified Cocoa Production Systems in Brazil

Revista Brasileira de Gestão e Desenvolvimento Regional (Bolivie), 2020, 17 pages - Site de rbgdr.net

Abstract : « Objective was to analyze how the governance structures established between suppliers and buyers of certified cocoa in the southern region of Bahia in Brazil have contributed for economic, social and environmental sustainability. Three case studies were carried out with ten producers of certified cocoa (organic and UTZ), one Collective Organization (CO) and three purchasing processor companies who sell for external and domestic market. In case study 1, there is more effective economic governance between the purchasing processor company and its downstream buyer, which refers to a valuation of the purchased product, and involves economic and non-economic aspects. In case studies 2 and 3, the contractual structures are not able to promote efficient coordination in this system. This paper have contributions by evidence the existence of production systems that are focused on the quality and value of cocoa, an assessment that involves not only an economic but also environmental issue, because the region in which it is produced (South Bahia region) ; innovates by linking the importance of the governance of different agents to the operation of higher quality systems and certification. »

Mots clés : BRESIL, REGION DE BAHIA, CACAO, UTZ, AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE, TRANSFORMATION, ENVIRONNEMENT, DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE


Fair Trade and Wellbeing Improvements : Evidence from Sri Lanka

HOLMES, Hannah ; IMAI, Katsushi - Kobe University (Japon), Resarch Institute for Economics and Business Administration, décembre 2019, 45 pages - Site de rieb.kobe-u.ac.jp

Abstract : « This paper investigates whether and how Fair Trade certification improves the wellbeing of small - scale producers by drawing upon a field study carried out by the authors in 2009 in the Central Province of Sri Lanka. A point of departure from earlier studies is to use a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative data to assess the impact of Fair Trade on a broader set of development indicators to capture both the monetary and non-monetary progress of farmers. Methodologically, to overcome the limitation of small sample sizes of non-experimental survey data, we propose the use of propensity - score weighted linear and non-linear regression models with and without instrumenting the farmers’participation in Fair Trade. Here we have made treatment and control groups observationally comparable by applying propensity score matching (PSM) to match and weight the data, following Hirano and Imbens. We have found that Fair Trade certification increased farmers’ actual income from tea production significantly, with fewer hours of work per day and accelerated perceived improvement in overall household income,as well as empowering women in decision making. Our mixed methods approach led us to conclude that Fair Trade certification benefits Fair Trade tea farmers through increased tea income and riskreduction. »

Mots clés : SRI LANKA, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, IMPACT, METHODOLOGIE, THE, PRODUCTEUR, REVENU REEL, FEMME


What Makes Darjeeling Tea Authentic ? Colonial Heritage and Contemporary Sustainability Practice in Darjeeling, India

SEN, Debarati - Südasien-Seminar der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2019, 27 pages - Site de edoc.hu-berlin.de

« The economic viability of Darjeeling’s organic and Fair-Trade certified plantations and the future of its smallholder tea farmers is shaped by mobilisation of colonial aesthetics and associated forms of classification of place and people. These social aspects of contemporary sustainability practice are missing in most engagements with transnational sustainability initiatives. The discussions in this article is an attempt to ethnographically illuminate how agency and success of organic tea producers from certain regions of the world rely on cultural productions dependent on colonial imaginaries.« 

Mots clés : INDE, DARJEELING, THE BIOLOGIQUE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, IMAGINAIRE COLONIALE


Contributo para um estudo sobre comércio justo : um olhar sobre a experiência Cabaz Fresco do Mar na Fuzeta

CUNHA RODRIDUES, Teresa - Instituto Universitario de Lisboa, Escola de Ciências Sociais e Humanas Departamento de Economia Política, septembre 2019, 104 pages - Site de repositorio.iscte-iul.pt

Resumo : « O comércio e produção local têm atravessado nos últimos anos um processo de transformação. Este é um processo que tem sido impulsionado sobretudo pela liberalização dos mercados e pelos efeitos da globalização. A cadeia comercial é hoje projetada a uma escala global e baseada na lógica da concorrência onde os pequenos produtores não entram na competição em condições de igualdade para com os seus concorrentes de maior dimensão ; onde o preço final do produto não é repartido de forma justa entre todos os intervenientes na cadeia comercial. Em virtude destes factos, o comércio local tem entrado em declínio. Mas é também em virtude deste declínio que se tem assistido ao surgimento de uma série de iniciativas enquadradas na dinâmica maior da Economia Social e Solidária que procuram contrariar esta tendência. O Comércio Justo e a Soberania Alimentar são exemplos destas iniciativas. Em conjunto defendem e valorizam o comércio local, da produção ao consumo e encaram o comércio internacional como um complemento e não um substituto à capacidade de produção local. Poderá o Comércio ser efetivamente justo ? Se sim, com que meios ? Poderá a pequena escala constituir a chave de sucesso para as experiências de comércio justo ? E para o desenvolvimento da região onde é promovido ? Estas são algumas das questões que nos acompanharam ao longo da reflexão e às quais se procurou dar resposta através da ilustração com o estudo de caso realizado na Associação de Armadores de Pesca da Fuzeta – O Cabaz Fresco Mar. »

Mots clés : PORTUGAL, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, PECHE, COOPERATIVE, CIRCUIT COURT


Toward a more sustainable coffee production

Pelita Perkebunan, n°3, vol. 35, décembre 2019, 18 p. - Site de researchgate.net

Abstract : « This paper contributes to the literature on the emerging trend of Southern sustainability standards and certifications as a reaction to the Northern-based private standards by businesses and NGOs. It particularly analyzes the implementation capacity of ISCoffee as a public standard and certification initiated by the Indonesian government. We analyze the opportunities and barriers in the process of implementing ISCoffee and examine whether ISCoffee can become a viable alternative to Northern-based private standards and certification. We first conclude that the implementation capacity of ISCoffee is low, because of weak administrative structures, and communication and coordination deficiencies. Second, we conclude that ISCoffee will unlikely being able to solve smallholder-related problems in the coffee sector such as limited access to market, insufficient capital, and underdeveloped farmer organizations. Finally, we conclude that ISCoffee - on the short term - will not manage to become a viable alternative to Northern-based private standards and certifications. »

Mots clés : INDONESIE, CAFE DURABLE, NORME, ETAT, IMPACT, CERTIFICATION PRIVEE


Sustainability certification as a pillar to promote Indonesian coffee competitiveness

First International Conference on Sustainable Plantation 2019, 11 pages - Site de iopscience.iop.org

Abstract : « Coffee is an important agricultural product traded in global market. Coffee exports have contributed significantly to the economic growth of Indonesia, reducing the trade deficit and partly solved the problem of poverty reduction for people, especially in rural area. The demand of high-quality coffee is growing fast. The demand from consumers for certified coffee is also growing, and the price they are willing to pay has caught the attention of traders and producers. In global scope we have some sustainable coffee certifications including : Organic, Fair Trade Certified, Rainforest Alliance, Smithsonian Bird Friendly, UTZ Certified, and 4C Common Code. The objective of this review are : (1) perspective analysis of sustainable coffee certifications, (2) analysis of Indonesia coffee industry, and (3) strategy formulation in improving practices and accountability of Indonesia coffee development in global supply chains. There is evidence for a range of social, economic, and environmental benefits of certification. These certifications have the potential to create value for smallholders, as certain certified coffee carries a market premium. In order to meet market demand, coffee farmers have had to adapt a good farming practices to qualify for certification. »

Mots clés : INDONESIE, CAFE, EXPORTATION, PAUVRETE, CAFE DURABLE, CERTIFICATION, UTZ, 4C COMON CODE, FAIRTRADE INTERNATIONAL, RAINFOREST ALLIANCE, IMPACT


Alternative food networks as a counterbalance in the globalized perception of young consumers

SHS Web of Conferences, Globalization and its Socio-Economic Consequences, 2019, 7 pages - Site de shs-conferences.org

Abstract : « The phenomenon of alternative food networks is becoming increasingly important, especially in the context of changes in consumer behavior and business sustainability. The distribution channels of some products place a disproportionate burden on the environment. In this context, the issue of local food production and the use of local distribution channels are becoming increasingly important as counterbalances of international trade processes in the context of globalization. New food-specific forms include alternative food networks. Sustainability is a topical issue, especially among young consumers, who are sensitive to environmental issues and like all new things. This consumer target group will shape the future of the current globalized world. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the general level of awareness among young people aged 20 - 34 in the Czech Republic about alternative forms of purchasing food and to identify knowledge of different forms of this sale. Primary research data was used to evaluate preferences in 2019. The total number of participants was 519 respondents. The results show that more than half of the respondents have ever encountered the concept of an alternative food network. Most often, respondents said they had personal experience of selling on farm markets and selling organic food. »

Mots clés : THEQUIE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, JEUNE, CONSENTEMENT A PAYER


Cultural Implications of Fair Trade : Aligning Intent with Impact a Case Study of Ghanaian Basket Weaving

BAUGH, Lynn – Indiana University, Master of Arts in the Lilly Family School of Philanthropy, décembre 2019, 89 pages - Site de scholarworks.iupui.edu

Introduction : « The modern fair trade movement and resulting network emerged during the twentieth century as a strategy to alleviate extreme poverty through creating equitable trading initiatives and markets. Since its emergence, fair trade has grown tremendously to include initiatives across the globe, particularly within the Global South. Although the intent to do good is present amongst fair traders, the impact of these initiatives remains rather ambiguous, especially in regards to culture. Using a case study approach, this thesis aims to identify the cultural implications of fair trade activities and initiatives on Ghanaian basket weavers and their local communities, and then determine the effectiveness of the fair trade movement in aligning intent with impact within this context given these findings. From there, specific policy recommendations are provided for future initiatives. »

Mots clés : GHANA, PANIER TRESSE, CULTURE TRADITIONNELLE, ARTISAN, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, IMPACT, CRITIQUE