Travaux universitaires - Septembre 2017

Publié le :

Chocolate and the Consumption of Forests : A Cross-National Examination of Ecologically Unequal Exchange in Cocoa Exports

Journal of world-systems research, 2017, n°2, vol. 23, 33 p. - Site de jwsr.pitt.edu

Abstract : « This study explores the potential links between specialization in cocoa exports and deforestation in developing nations through the lens of ecologically unequal exchange. Although chocolate production was once considered to have only minimal impacts on forests, recent reports suggest damaging trends due to increased demand and changing cultivation strategies. I use two sets of regression analyses to show the increased impact of cocoa export concentration on deforestation over time for less-developed nations. Overall, the results confirm that cocoa exports are associated with deforestation in the most recent time period, and suggest that specialization in cocoa exports is an important form of ecologically unequal exchange, where the environmental costs of chocolate consumption in the Global North are externalized to nations in the Global South, further impairing possibilities for successful or sustainable development. »

Mots clés : CULTURE DU CACAO, DEFORESTATION, ECHANGE INEGAL


The influence of subjective and objective knowledge of ecolabels on consumers’ green purchasing practices : A study of young Swedish consumers

GUNNE, Ingrid ; MATTO, Jakob – Lund University (Suède), Master’s Programme in International Marketing & Brand Management, mai 2017, 60 p. - Site de lup.lub.lu.se,

Abstract : « Understanding of consumers’ green purchasing behaviour is a relevant topic for businesses around the world and an interesting research field, considering the issue of climate change. This study investigates the associations of young Swedish consumers’ subjective knowledge, objective knowledge, confusion and information acquisition with regards to commonly found ecolabels. The purpose is to shed light on how these concepts are related to and influence consumers’ green purchasing behaviour. Gaining insight into this topic could help businesses understand consumers’ perception of ecolabels and by extension, how the ecolabels can be used to promote green consumption. Cross - sectional data were gathered from a sample of 320 consumers in May 2017. The data gathering was carried out through 3 surveys studying the forementioned concepts in relation to the ecolabels of Fairtrade, the Euro Leaf and KRAV. This is the first study investigating this topic in the Swedish market. The main finding indicate that business should focus on influencing consumers’ subjective knowledge, rather than objective, to incentivise a more environmental friendly purchasing behaviour. In addition, the findings confirm that theories from previous studies onother areas of knowledge are applicable to the topic of ecolabels as well. Additional theoretical and practical implications are discussed. »

Mots clés : SUEDE, ECOLABEL, JEUNE, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, CONSOMMATION


Certificação fairtrade na Cafeicultura brasileira : análises e perspectivas

PAZETO, Rafael ; ARRAES, Nilson – Coffee Science, janvier 2017, Universidade Estadual de Campinas/UNICAMP - Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola/FEAGRI - Site de researchgate.net

Abstract : « This paper offers help to decision for the Brazilian’s fairtrade coffee stakeholders. It does a broad and current position about the scene of fairtrade certification in Brazilian coffee sector. It was developed through literature review and interviews in institutions related to certification in Brazil. It was developed through literature review and interviews in institutions related to certification in Brazil. Its main results indicate that : i) half of the farmers cooperatives in Brazil were certified between 2009 and 2015 ; ii) in a few cooperatives are concentrated the most of the coffee producers and most of the sales of fairtrade coffee ; iii) Brazilian scientific research suggest that certification has contributed to the improvement of the property management and also to internationalization of the business ; iv) international literature indicates advantages, but problems in the distribution of the benefits and also many where the certification’s impacts were derisory. Considering the global context of Brazilian coffee sector, still not possible to affirm whether fairtrade certification is or not achieving its goals. »

Mots clés : BRESIL, CAFE EQUITABLE, IMPACT, PERSPECTIVE


Estandarización del Proceso de Certificación de Fincas Bajo la Norma Global Gap y Comercio Justo para la Asociación Agroindustrial de Fruticultores - La Floresta, con el Fin de Mejorar los Precios de Venta de la Uchuva Tipo Exportación

PÉREZ, Eliana Licet - Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia-Unad Cead Escuela de Ciencias Administrativas, Económicas, Contables y de Negocios-Ecacen Especialización en Gestión de Proyectos - Sogamoso, octobre 2016, 110 pages - Site de repository.unad.edu.co

« En el municipio de Floresta se encuentra la Asociación Agroindustrial de Fruticultores la Floresta, cuya principal actividad está enfocada en la comercialización de uchuva, exportada a través de C.I : Andes Export S.A.S. a mercados de Europa y recientemente a Estados Unidos. La asociación en este momento cuenta con la certificación en Comercio justo y cuatro fincas se encuentran certificadas en Global Gap. Actualmente aunque conocen las normas y requerimientos no cuentan con un documento guía que les permita tomar decisiones y hacer los controles necesarios para prepararse para las auditorias anuales, es por ello que se plantea el presente proyecto, con el fin de estandarizar dichos procesos y procedimientos. Para llevarlo a cabo lo anterior se busca diseñar cuatro documentos de fácil manejo con los requerimientos establecidos tanto para la certificación de fincas productoras de frutas como para asociaciones de productores:dos que contienen los formatos modelo para la certificación de fincas bajo las normas Global Gap y Comercio Justo y un manual de procesos y procedimientos para cada norma. Lo anterior teniendo en cuenta que a la fecha para el cumplimiento de la documentación y preparación de las auditorias la asociación La Floresta depende de un asesor externo contratado por Andes Export S.A.S., sin embargo si la empresa abre nuevos mercados con otros comercializadores o si se acabara su relación comercial actual con la exportadora no tendrían las herramientas suficientes para continuar con las certificaciones obtenidas, ni los recursos para pagar un asesor. Se utilizará el tipo de investigación exploratorio-descriptivo con la utilización de fuentes primarias y secundarias que permitan realizar un diagnóstico de las fincas y de la asociación y que nos permita generar los manuales de procesos y procedimientos para la certificación de fincas en Global Gap y Comercio Justo, basados en las normas existentes para que la Asociación sea autónoma en el seguimiento y control para continuar con dichas certificaciones. »

Mots clés : COLOMBIE, UCHUVA, EXPORTATION, COMMERCE EQUITABLE, CERTIFICATION


La diffusion de l’économie sociale et solidaire au Burkina Faso : le rôle des associations et des universitaires

KOUANDA, Hamza - 2017, 21 pages, Laboratoire Triangle UMR 5206, Lyon2 - Site de forumess2017.sciencesconf.org

« Les principaux travaux qui s’intéressent à la question du transfert de la notion d’ESS en Afrique francophone se focalisent plus sur sa matérialisation et ses effets que sur ses modes et moyens. Ainsi, ce papier a pour objet de spécifier le rôle des associations et des universitaires dans la transposition et la diffusion du concept d’économie sociale et solidaire au Burkina Faso. Pour mener à bien cette réflexion, deux sentiers sont ici empruntés pour rendre compte de la pénétration de l’expression ESS dans l’espace académique et public au Burkina. La piste par laquelle nous cheminons conduit à marquer une halte afin d’observer le paysage des acteurs institutionnels burkinabè. Plus précisément celui de l’administration publique et des praticiens de l’ESS. Dans le but de montrer que si dans le discours étatique, la notion d’ESS est très peu usitée, cela est moins vrai pour les associations et ONG où ledit vocable gagne en visibilité. Cette affirmation naissante peut être expliquée par la reconnaissance des acteurs de leur appartenance à cette famille économique à travers non seulement leurs pratiques et leurs aspirations. De ce premier constat, nous bifurquons pour prendre la route de l’université. Nous montrons que les enseignants et chercheurs burkinabè, à travers leurs réseaux et leurs cours ont fortement contribué au transfert du concept d’ESS au Burkina Faso. La mise en place de la Maîtrise en économie et gestion des entreprises d’économie sociale et solidaire constitue un moment important dans le processus de cette transplantation. »

Mots clés : BURKINA FASO, ESS, ASSOCIATION, UNIVERSITE


Transiciones hacia una agricultura sostenible : el nicho de la apicultura orgánica en una cooperativa Argentina

Mundo agrario, n°37, vol.18, avril 2017, 15 p. - Site de scielo.org.ar

« Este artículo argumenta que es posible transformar los senderos de innovación en las industrias basadas en recursos naturales hacia modelos integralmente más sostenibles. En particular, se emplea el marco conceptual de transiciones de sistemas sociotécnicos para comprender los límites estructurales que el sistema de agricultura industrial le impone a COOPSOL, un proyecto cooperativo de apicultura orgánica en Argentina. Los datos son cualitativos y sistematizan, por un lado, las presiones para la continuidad y el cambio en el sistema de agricultura industrial. Por otro lado, revelan las principales percepciones de los actores de COOPSOL ante los límites estructurales existentes. « 

Mots clés : ARGENTINE, APICULTURE, COOPERATIVE, AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE, TRANSITION, COOPSOL


Understanding Chinese Consumers’ Intention to Purchase Sustainable Fashion Products : The Moderating Role of Face-Saving Orientation

INSTITUT OF TEXTILES AND CLOTHING, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China, 2017, 15 pages - Site de mdpi.com

Abstract : « In a culture where collectivism is pervasive such as China, social norms can be one of the most powerful tools to influence consumers’ behavior. Individuals are driven to meet social expectations and fulfill social roles in collectivist cultures. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate how Chinese consumers’ concern with saving face affects sustainable fashion product purchase intention and how it also moderates consumers’ commitment to sustainable fashion. An empirical data set of 469 undergraduate students in Beijing and Shanghai was used to test our hypotheses. Results confirmed that face-saving is an important motivation for Chinese consumers’ purchase of sustainable fashion items, and it also attenuated the effect of general product value while enhancing the effect of products’ green value in predicting purchasing trends. The findings contribute to the knowledge of sustainable consumption in Confucian culture, and thus their managerial implications were also discussed. »

Mots clés : CHINE, MODE ETHIQUE, CONSOMMATEUR, MOTIVATION


Las Reivindicaciones Políticas en las Redes Transnacionales Deapoyo en el Comercio Justo Colombiano. Estudio de Caso : Coordinadora Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Pequeños Productores de Comercio Justo en el Periodo (2012-2015)

Universidad Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales, 2016, 29 pages - Site de repository.urosario.edu.co

« El estudio de caso basado en la Coordinadora Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Pequeños Productores de Comercio Justo tiene el objetivo de analizar las motivaciones de los pequeños productores organizados de Colombia para unirse a redes como la CLAC durante el periodo 2012-2015. De lo anterior, se presume que algunos de los pequeños productores colombianos que participan en la CLAC tienen un interés evidente en recibir, de parte de esa red, un acompañamiento técnico y estratégico para incorporarse mejor en los canales de comercialización agrícolas. Sin embargo, este trabajo quiere mostrar que también hay motivaciones de tipo político en la vinculación de los productores a esas redes transnacionales, ya que, a través de ellas, se vinculan igualmente a causas globales con trascendencia política. El comercio justo agrícola en Colombia, visto desde la perspectiva de las redes transnacionales de apoyo y las reivindicaciones en éstas, es un aporte a la disciplina de las Relaciones Internacionales, ya que esta temática ha sido evaluada en repetidas ocasiones desde una aproximación comercial o como estrategia para generar desarrollo, pero ha habido poca discusión sobre el comercio justo desde las redes transnacionales de apoyo como plataformas para las reivindicaciones políticas. « 

Mots clés : COLOMBIE, AMERIQUE LATINE, COODINADORA LATINOAMERCIANA Y DEL CARIBE DE PEQUENOS PRODUCTORES DE COMERCIO JUSTO, APPUI AUX PRODUCTEURS, REVENDICATION POLITIQUE


Ethical Consumerism of Clothing

VALTANEN, Jerry - Urku University of Applied Sciences, Bachelor of Business Administration, International Business, 2017, 48 pages - Site de theseus.fi

« This thesis concerns the Finnish consumers buying habbits of clothing and the effect of ethical production in it. The thesis examines the concepts of business ethics, clothing industry, consumer behavior and ethical consumerism. The theoretical framework for this thesis is Carroll’s CSR-pyramid and compares the buying decision process of ethical consumers around the world and Finland. The empirical framework of this thesis applies the sequential explatory design, where both qualitative and quantitative data collection were used. First two clothing industry professionals were interviewed so that the questionnaire would be formulated correctly. Then a questionnaire survey was conducted and it targeted the Finnish consumers. The results show that a vast majority of Finnish consumers do not consider ethics as an important factor when making a purchase decision. They also show that consumers value quality, price and aesthetics above all
and that brand has little or no impact. The results also show that Finnish consumers wouldn’t buy unethical clothing or atleast would be on the edge, if they would be 100% sure it was unethical and if the situation would arise.The results also show that Finnish consumers are also willing to pay more for products they know are ethical. »

Mots clés : FINLANDE, MODE ETHIQUE, CONSOMMATEUR


Produção de Café com Certificação Fair Trade : uma alternativa para os produtores familiares

Revisista da Universidade Vale do Rio Verde, Três Corações, août 2017, n°2, vol.15, 11 p. - Site de periodicos.unincor.br

Resumo : « O Brasil é o maior produtor de café do mundo, sendo Minas Gerais, o estado responsável pela maior produção cafeeira no país. Nas últimas décadas diversas mudanças têm ocorrido na produção e no consumo envolvendo o setor cafeeiro. Os consumidores e comprado res de café estão mais exigentes quanto aos critérios sociais, ambientais, econômicos e qualitativos, ou seja, se os produtos adquiridos estão de acordo com o cumprimento das leis trabalhistas. Consequentemente, os produtores rurais sentiram a necessidade de buscar novos métodos para a produção de café para atender a esse novo nicho de mercado procurando agregar mais valor à produção. A certificação Fair Trade surgiu como uma boa alternativa para aumentar o benefício percebido pelos consumidores de um café diferenciado. Diante disso, foram entrevistados produtores rurais associados à Cooperativa dos Agricultores Familiares de Poço Fundo-COOPFAM , em cinco ocasiões, nas reuniões dos cooperados. Verificou-se, neste estudo de caso, que a renda através da comercialização do café com a certificação Fair Trade acarretou melhores condições para os produtores rurais manterem o equilíbrio econômico. Os lucros são revertidos para as propriedades rurais, pois recebem um preço mais justo pelo café. Destaca-se que a participação na cooperativa fortaleceu e deu mais tranquilidade e segurança aos produtores rurais nas transações comerciais. Observou -se que após a certificação Fair Trade os produtores rurais adotaram práticas mais sustentáveis, levando-se em consideração, a preservação do meio ambiente. »

Mots clés : BRESIL, CAFE EQUITABLE, COOPERATIVE, GARANTIE, IMPACT


Who Benefits from Fairtrade ? Evidence from the Swedish Coffee Market

DUREVALL, Dick – University of Gothenburg, HUI Research and Department of Economics, septembre 2017, 29 pages - Site de gupea.ub.gu.se

Abstract : « This paper analyses how the premium customers pay for Fairtrade-labelled coffee is distributed in the Swedish market, using information on costs of production and scanner data on almost all roasted and ground coffee products sold by retailers. A key finding is that roasters and retailers get 43–70%, while producer countries, in this paper comprising coffee farmers, cooperatives, middlemen, exporters and Fairtrade International, get 24–51%. Fairtrade Sweden gets 5–8%. These values are upper and lower bounds that reflect assumptions made about the additional costs of producing roasted and ground Fairtrade coffee, given the cost of beans and the Fairtrade license, and whether conventional coffee is compared with organic or non-organic Fairtrade coffees. Since roasters’ and retailers’ margins are higher for Fairtrade than conventional coffee, there is evidence that Fairtrade retail prices are higher than the level attributable to costs. However, producer countries receive a significantly larger share of the premium paid than reported in earlier studies, which are either dated or analyse very small samples of coffees. »

Mots clés : SUEDE, CAFE EQUITABLE, CAFE BIOLOGIQUE, COMMERCIALISATION, CHAINE DE VALEUR


Fair Trade as Civic Innovation ? The case of tea certification in India

SIEGMANN, Karin Astrid – Intervention à la 3ème Conférence internationale Indialics sur l’Innovation et le Développement durable, mars 2016, 20 p. - Site de indialics.org

Abstract : « Workers on tea estates at the beginning of the tea value chain have historically been and continue to represent some the most marginalised agricultural workers. The tea sector in India is the country’s largest formal sector in terms of employment. Yet, wages of tea workers are the lowest among the formal labour force and their living conditions are appalling (Bhowmik 2015 : 29). In this paper, Idiscuss whether fair trade certification, i.e. the certification of products whose production adheres to a set of social, environmental and governance standards as fair trade- compliant, can contribute to a transformation of the tea chain, able to support moves towards more decent work. This discussion is based on a review of existing studies of the impact of fair trade on tea cultivation in India. With Biekart et al. (2016), I refer to such progressive societal change driven by civic actors as forms of ‘civic innovation’. Given tea workers’ marginalisation, the analysis of fair trade tea cultivation offers a litmus test of the potential of fair trade certification to promote inclusive development in line with the 8th Sustainable Development Goal to “[p]romote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all” (UN 2015). »

Mots clés : INDE, THE EQUITABLE, CERTIFICATION, IMPACT, TRAVAIL DECENT


Measuring preferences and willingness to pay for sustainability labels in olive oil : Evidence from Spanish consumers

Intervention lors du Congrès « Towards Sustainable Agrifood Systems - Balancing Between Markets and Society », août 2017, 14 p. - Site de researchgate.net

Abstract : « To satisfy increasing social demand for sustainability in agriculture, policy makers and the agrifood sector should consider consumer preferences for food sustainability labels. This paper assesses consumers‟ preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for olive oil with sustainability labels in Spain using Choice Experiment. A face – to - face survey was conducted to 250 Spanish consumers. A Multinomial and a Random Parameter Logit models were estimated. Results suggest that consumers‟ utilities regarding the sustainability labels are positive. This entails that these labels significantly increase the probability of purchase by consumers. The results also reveal that the highest WTP is for the Organic label. »

Mots clés : ESPAGNE, HUILE D’OLIVE, CONSOMMATION DURABLE, LABEL, CONSENTEMENT A PAYER