Travaux universitaires - Janvier 2017

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Fairness and Organizational Performance : Insights for Supply Chain Management

YEOMAN, Ruth ; MUELLER SANTOS, Milena – MiB Briefing, n°3, novembre 2016, 24 p. - Site de, 2016, 24 pages

Abstract : "For this briefing document we review the organizational fairness literature with a focus on the supply chain context. Supply chain fairness is an under -researched topic and we seek to close this gap through a systematic literature review. We draw upon key contributions to the psychology, economics and organizations studies literature to illuminate the salient features of fairness in social and economic systems, such as supply chains. This briefing document highlights that fairness influences economic behaviour and firm performance in important ways. The literature shows that fairness in organizational practices can foster various sources competitive advantage and hence improve organizational performance. While there is a robust literature on fairness in the human ressources management (HRM) domain, fairness perceptionsby other stakeholder groups are underexplored and warrant further research attention. Moreover, while the business case for supply chain fairness is well established, other salient issues remain under researched in the academic literature. We explore avenues for future research. »


Ethical and sustainable consumption in the Italian coffee market : a choice experiment to analyse consumers’ willingness to pay

Rivista di Economia agraria (Universita degli studi Firenze), 2016, 24 p. - Site de

« Consumers increasingly consider ethical and sustainable attributes of products in their purchasing decisions, in particular with reference to food consumption. Among agri-food products, coffee is a pioneering food for sustainability and ethical certification, such as organic and Fair Trade, whose success depends significantly on consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price for these attributes. This study uses a choice experiment (CE) to investigate the attitudes towards organic and Fair Trade coffee among Italian consumers. The results show considerable heterogeneity among respondents, the majority of whom tend to be more interested in organic coffee than Fair Trade coffee, even if a large group of them are willing to pay a premium price to consume Fair Trade coffee. »


Percepção e relevância da certificação fair trade para empresas brasileiras

Revista Metropolitana de Sustentabilidade, sept.-déc. 2016, vol.6, n°3, 19 p. - Site de

Resumo : « Essept,-déc, 2016, te estudo teve por objetivo analisar a percepção dos gestores de empresas brasileiras a respeito do movimento fair trade. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas com gestores de empresas que possuem um dos selos vinculados ao movimento. Os resultados mostram que o selo é eficaz em sua proposta filosófica, pois garante melhores condições de trabalho e de bem-estar social aos trabalhadores. Ademais, as empresas que possuem o selo parecem aumentar as vendas a nichos de mercado compostos por pessoas preocupadas com as condições dos trabalhadores no processo de produção. Todavia, em termos gerais, o selo fair trade parece não trazer um atrativo comercial significativo sob o ponto de vista das empresas. « 


Diversité, conflictualité, complémentarité des visions du monde : une investigation anthropologique de la consommation en Amap

Site de, 2017, 21 pages

« Cet article propose de comprendre l’engagement des consommateurs dans des systèmes de vente directe alternatifs au marché : les Amaps (Associations pour le Maintien d’une Agriculture Paysanne). Il s’appuie sur une méthode ethnographique et mobilise un cadre d’analyse anthropologique, la Cultural Theory, dont la vocation est d’élucider les visions du monde des acteurs. L’analyse fait apparaître les Amaps comme des enclaves communautaires hors et contre le marché. Elle met également en évidence une pluralité culturelle qui caractérise le mouvement Amapien. Si cette diversité des visions du monde est source de tensions, leur complémentarité se révèle également positive pour les Amaps. »


Sustainable Development of Fairtrade Coffee in Laos

Site de, 2009, 46 pages

Abstract : « Coffee is one of the main crash crops for many farmers in developing countries. The farmers in the southern part of Laos, who are the subject of this study, are no exception. The research intends to investigate the impacts of Fairtrade coffee in Laos. The Fairtrade system to a large extent still shares many characteristics with conventional trade. The research also found that despite the benefits of greater social capital, participating in Fairtrade does not help reduce the level of farmers’ vulnerability to and dependency on the global food market. On the contrary, in terms of socially sustainable development, Fairtrade indeed spreads what Hamilton and Denniss (2005) call “luxury fever” to farmers. Ignored and hidden by Fairtrade are the environmental impacts of the production (coffee) life cycle, so “Fairtrade as a contributor to environmentally sustainable development” is questionable. In addition, the study considers whether the amount of work the farmers invest to achieve the Fairtrade standard is worth the higher price they receive. Therefore, it is anticipated that the findings of this study will generate some suggestions that have the potential to contribute to the sustainable development of the community and to inform consumers as to whether Fairtrade should be supported. « 


Economic Effects of Fair Trade Certification on Individual Producers

The University of Tennessee at Martin, Department of Agriculture, Geosciences and Natural Resources – Travail prépartoire pour le Southern Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2017, 21 p. - Site de

Abstract : « Global demand for coffee has increased significantly due to emphasis placed on value creation throughout the coffee supply chain, increased consumption in emerging economies, and changes in consumer preference.The specialty coffee industry, in particular, has highlighted the economic effects on individual participants from producers to consumers. In an attempt to encourage a more equitable income distribution along the supply chain, organizations such as Fair Trade Coffee have emerged to address the welfare of producers. A simple regression analysis can be used to determine the impact of Fair Trade Certificationon producer premiums obtained through these non - traditional distribution channels. The Fair Trade Model will also be evaluated based on historical market data related to the evolution of the specialty coffee industry, including similar trade models that have emerged due to increased awareness brought about by Fair Trade Coffee. This preliminary study will serve as a platform for future studies that willdetermine the overall impact of Honduran Fair Trade Coffee Certification on producer welfare. »


Multiple Certifications and Consumer Purchase Decisions : A Case Study of Willingness to Pay for Coffee in Germany

Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York , Working Paper décembre 2016, 21 p, -

Abstract : « This study contributes to the literature on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for certified coffee with the main objective of trying to understand consumer choices in the presence of (i) multiple labels and (ii) multiple certifications within each label type. The multiple labels we consider are Fair Trade, Wild Grown and Organic coffee while multiple certifications within each of these three main labels include permutations such as Fair Trade + Organic and Organic + Wild Grown. We find that consumers’ WTP for the Organic label has the highest mean value but also the highest dispersion of any of the WTP distributions. The distribution of WTP for the Fair Trade label, while somewhat lower than Organic, has a much tighter distribution about around its mean. Comparing the shape of the distributed WTP for Organic versus Fair Trade may provide some evidence for the degree of consumer confidence or knowledge about what the respective labels purport to deliver. Consistent with the above results, we find that consumers are unlikely to choose Wild Grown coffee and are not willing to pay a price premium for this label. »


Le label « Fairtrade International » pourrait-il résoudre les problèmes sociaux relatifs à la chaîne d’approvisionnement de l’industrie du textile ?

DUBATH, Caroline – Haute école de gestion de Genève, Filière économie d’entreprise, août 2016, 59 p. - Site de «», 2016, 59 pages

Résumé : « La mondialisation, au cœur de nombreux débats depuis une trentaine d’années, est porteuse de nouveaux enjeux éthiques, par sa création d’un espace mondial interdépendant. Entraînées par la course vers les prix les plus bas, les entreprises ont profité du contexte économique globalisé pour modifier leur mode de production, faisant désormais appel à la sous-traitance. Le présent travail porte sur l’industrie du textile-habillement qui est particulièrement touchée par les multiples délocalisations de la production des grandes marques, par le fait que celle-ci ne requiert pas de compétences spécifiques. Ces dernières ont alors bénéficié de la main-d’œuvre bon marché des pays en voie de développement et sont parvenues à imposer un modèle d’affaires, considéré comme profondément inégalitaire. Cette étude vise, dans un premier temps, à comprendre les caractéristiques du modèle d’affaires inhérent à cette industrie ainsi qu’à en identifier les enjeux sociaux et éthiques qui sont apparus à la suite du changement de configuration du mode de production des entreprises de l’habillement. De cette analyse découle la responsabilité incombée aux parties prenantes impliquées dans le secteur et leur pouvoir d’action pour que la situation actuelle évolue. L’analyse met également en évidence les différentes mesures qui ont déjà été mises en place par les divers acteurs présents dans cette industrie. Elle se termine par la mise en évidence des points positifs et négatifs des exigences du label textile, élaboré par le labellisateur Fairtrade International, concernant les enjeux sociaux préalablement identifiés. La dernière partie du travail propose six recommandations concrètes pour les entreprises de l’habillement ainsi que deux moyens d’action pour les différentes parties prenantes qui soutiennent la stratégie énoncée dans les recommandations. La conclusion de ce travail clôt cette partie. »


Politiques publiques alimentaires : de la difficile insertion du commerce équitable dans les projets métropolitains

ROLLAND, Lisa - Urbanités Chroniques 2016, 12 p. - Site de, 2016, 12 pages

« Alors que le « locavorisme » semble être le nouveau mot d’ordre des pratiques de consommation entre « bien manger » et « manger juste », les Fair Trade Towns marquent l’insertion de l’équitable dans les politiques publiques alimentaires. Ce processus inédit s’accompagne toutefois de tensions entre différentes formes de consommation présentées comme opposées, voire contradictoires, entre « local », « équitable », « responsable », ou encore « durable ». Si la campagne Fair Trade Towns illustre l’articulation du local au global qui caractérise la grande ville contemporaine, notamment par l’attrait de produits exotiques et éthiques, l’obtention du titre à Lyon et dans trois communes de Bruxelles-Capitale (Ville de Bruxelles, communes de Jette et Ixelles) , terrains d’une recherche de doctorat, ne semble pas bouleverser les pratiques de consommation ni dans la collectivité, ni sur son territoire. Comment lire cette difficulté pour l’équitable ? S’il est quelque peu noyé face aux préoccupations d’intégration de l’agriculture biologique et des circuits courts dans les politiques alimentaires métropolitaines, l’équitable est également approprié et redéfini par les acteurs de la ville : il est de plus en plus envisagé Nord-Nord plutôt que Nord-Sud en intégrant le paradigme du développement durable accolé au tout local. »


Alternative Trade in Handicraft Retail

RAGHUPATHY, Jaganathan - Site de, 2016, page 116-145

« The broad scope of this study is to understand the workings of an Alternative Trade Organization (ATO) that operates internationally to connect producers, farmers, and artisans from marginalized communities in under-developed and developing world with mature markets in developed countries. This study uses the sharing economy and collaborative consumption frameworks. The study specifically seeks to conceptualize an ideal ATO that trades in handicrafts, home products, art forms, jewelry, and other similar merchandize of regional character. »


Disqualifier pour qualifier : enjeux et acteurs de la constitution d’une identité standard pour le guaraná de Maués

CONGRETEL, Mélanie ; PINTON, Florence - Développement durable & Territoires, vol.7, n°3, 25 p., décembre 2016 - Site de

Résumé : « La région de Maués, en Amazonie brésilienne, est connue comme la « terre du guaraná », plante cultivée pour ses vertus énergisantes et qui en serait originaire. Celle-ci fait l’objet de tentatives d’appropriation par différents acteurs économiques implantés localement – instituts de recherche ou firmes agro-industrielles –, mais aussi plus récemment par de nouveaux acteurs, en appui aux populations locales revendiquant un savoir sur cette plante. Nous analysons deux démarches de valorisation du guaraná (rénovation du matériel génétique et demande d’indication géographique) répondant à des paradigmes agricoles a priori contradictoires, sous l’angle des critères de qualification de la plante et des acteurs qu’elles mobilisent. Nous montrons que le recours à l’IG ne garantit en rien la valorisation du patrimoine biologique et cognitif local, tandis que se constitue au cours du temps un nouvel objet socio-technique : le guaraná cloné. « 


Land Reform and the Meaning of the Fair Trade in the Context of the Republic of South Africa

IKEGAMI, Koichi – Journal of Asian Rural Studies (Cambridge Uni versity Press), 2017, vol.1, n°1, 15 p., 2017, 2017, 15 pages

Abstract : « Fair Trade is drastically expanding to mainstream in the 2000s. Even in the Republic of South Africa (South Africa) has the Fair Trade Movement appeared in agricultural and food sectors. Management companies and white farms are not marginalized people, who are major target of Fair Trade movement in general. This paper intended to answer the questions why management companies and white farms are involved in Fair Trade movement. The paper argued that major players of Fair Trade in South Africa is a large commercial farm owned by white South Africans who are very sensitive to political pressure. Fair Trade movement in SouthAfrica. South Africa is facing a difficult problem on how to reduce the poor-rich distinction in agriculture. From this context, land reform should be urgently an d strongly promoted. Land reform gave impacts by way of two courses. One is the necessity of economic sustainability by introducing a concept of ‘fairness’ as appealing new added value, followed by initiating Fair Trade farms and Strategic Partnership Approach. The other is the politico-psychological pressure to secure good reputation of ‘fairness’, which was caused by social pressure of land reform and domestic policies seeking for reduction of disparities between rural-urban and agriculture - industry relationships. Although the land reform is urgent for economic sustainability, but the land reform farm failed to continue their business due to the lack of know-how and knowledge concerning farm activities and lack of good market access and the market structure to block native Africans to sell in a free way. In this point, Fair Trade is one of possible solutions. »


Perfil y preferencia de los consumidores ecuatorianos por atributos de calidad en la producción de café

Coffee Science (Lavras, Bresil), juillet-septembre 2016, vol.11, n°3, 10 p. - Site de

Abstract : « More and more consumers put importance on the production methods, safety and origin of food products. Ethical issues, the impact on the environment and the origin of the products are receiving special interest among consumers in general. The coffee sector is no stranger to this trend. This study generates a profile of Ecuadorian consumers of roasted and ground coffee, analysing the effect on consumer preferences of different quality attributes associated with coffee production. A choice experiment was carried out with the participation of consumers from Quito, Guayaquil, Manta and Portoviejo. The experiment consisted of 16 simulation cards, each including two hypothetical products. The attributes used for the construction of the profiles were : high mountain provenance ; Fair Trade certification ; Rainforest labelling ; organic production ; origin (Manabi, Loja and Colombia) ; price. The results suggest that Fair Trade, Rainforest, and organic certification exert a positive and significant effect on consumers’ utility. Origin and high mountain provenance have no significant effects on utility. Therefore, quality certification can be an important tool for differentiation in coffee production. »


Price dependence between coffee qualities : a copula model to evaluate asymmetric responses

STAVRAKOUDIS, Athanassios ; PANAGIOTOU, Dimitrios – University of Department of Economics, University of Loannina (Grèce) – 2016, 32 p. - Site de

Abstract : « The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence between di erent co ee qualities of the Arabica and Robusta varieties. This is pursued using the statistical tool of copulas and monthly price data for the period 1990:12014:12. Our results reveal evidence of asymmetric price dependence between the pairs BrazilianRobusta, BrazilianOthers and RobustaOthers, since price booms and price crashes are transmitted with di erent probabilities between these pairs of co ee qualities. For the pairs BrazilianColombian, ColombianRobusta and ColombianOthers there is no evidence of asymmetric price dependence. The empirical ndings of this article indicate that the probability that fairtrade co ee producers will see a price crash in the Robusta variety being transmitted to the co ee qualities of the Arabica variety is either zero or much lower than the probability of the transmission of a price boom. »